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Acute complications: Short-term effects of out of range blood glucose, including hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, seizure, and coma.

Automated insulin delivery system: Also known as “artificial pancreas,” “closed-loop,” or “hybrid closed-loop.” These systems include a connected insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor with a software algorithm that adjusts insulin delivery based on current and predicted glucose.

Basal and bolus insulin: Basal insulin is long-acting or intermediate insulin administered once a day to regulate glucose throughout the day. Bolus insulin is short- or rapid-acting insulin administered at meal-times to regulate glucose fluctuations with food intake or when glucose is too high. A basal–bolus insulin regimen is designed to mimic the functioning of a pancreas without T1D.

Blood glucose meter: Device used to measure current blood glucose using a droplet of blood from a fingerstick.

Continuous glucose monitor: Device worn on the body to measure interstitial glucose every 5 minutes. A sensor is positioned on the skin that includes a cannula (i.e., a tiny plastic tube penetrating the skin) that measures glucose, which is visible on a separate handheld display or smartphone app.

Diabetes distress: A common emotional response to the everyday burdens, challenges, and stressors related to living with and managing T1D. There are some similarities to depressive symptoms, but diabetes distress is related specifically to diabetes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis: Serious acute complication of hyperglycemia in which the body begins to burn fat and muscle for energy. Blood acids called ketones are produced and coma or death may occur.

Fear of hypoglycemia: Concern about the potential risk of low blood glucose level. Moderate amounts of fear may be adaptive and may lead to appropriate self-management behaviors; extremely high fear may interfere with functioning.

Glycemic variability: Increases and decreases in blood glucose outside the recommended range (usually 70–180 mg/dL).

Hemoglobin A1c (A1C): Blood test indicating average glucose during the past 2–3 months and a common marker of overall diabetes-related health. The American Diabetes Association A1C target for most people is <7.0%.

Hyperglycemia: Blood glucose above the target range (usually >180 mg/dL).

Hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia: Blood glucose below the target range (usually <70 mg/dL). Severe hypoglycemia is an urgent safety situation when the person with diabetes requires assistance from another person, often <54 mg/dL.

Insulin pump: Device worn on the body that administers insulin through a cannula that penetrates the skin. Some models communicate directly with glucose data from a continuous glucose monitor, see “Automated insulin delivery system.”

Long-term complications: Health consequences of diabetes across time, including problems with the heart, eyes, nerves, reproductive organs, and other health systems.

Time in range: Percent of time one’s glucose is in the target range (usually 70–180 mg/dL) throughout a specified period, calculated from continuous glucose monitor readings.

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