To assess the prevalence and correlates of prescription of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and/or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD).


This was a cross-sectional analyses of SGLT2i and GLP1-RA prescriptions from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020 in the Veterans Health Administration System. The likelihood of prescriptions was examined by the presence or absence of CKD and by predicted risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).


Of 1,197,880 adults with T2DM, SGLT2i and GLP1-RA were prescribed to 11% and 8% of patients overall, and to 12% and 10% of those with concomitant CKD, respectively. In adjusted models, patients with severe albuminuria were less likely to be prescribed SGLT2i or GLP1-RA versus nonalbuminuric patients with CKD, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.89, 0.93) and 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), respectively. Patients with a 10-year ASCVD risk >20% (vs. <5%), had lower odds of SGLT2i use (OR 0.66 [0.61, 0.71]) and GLP1-RA prescription (OR 0.55 [0.52, 0.59]). A 5-year ESKD risk >5%, compared with <1%, was associated with lower likelihood of SGLT2i prescription (OR 0.63 [0.59, 0.67]) but higher likelihood of GLP1-RA prescription (OR 1.53 [1.46, 1.61]).


Among a large cohort of patients with T2DM, prescription of SGLT2i and GLP1-RA was low in those with CKD. We observed a “risk-treatment paradox,” whereby patients with higher risk of adverse outcomes were less likely to receive these therapies.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.20816365.

This article is featured in a podcast available at diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/diabetes-core-update-podcasts.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.
You do not currently have access to this content.