To examine the association between microvascular disease (MVD) and risk of heart failure (HF) among individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


We included 1,713 and 28,624 participants with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, from the UK Biobank who were free of HF during enrollment. MVD burden reflected by the presence of retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline was prospectively evaluated for the association with incidence of HF. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of HF were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for multiple traditional risk factors.


There were 145 and 2,515 incident cases of HF recorded among participants with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, during a median follow-up of 11.5 years. The association between the number of MVD and HF was stronger among participants with T1DM than among those with T2DM (P for interaction <0.001). Compared with participants with no MVD, those with all three MVD had an adjusted HR (95% CI) of 11.37 (5.62, 22.99) in T1DM and 3.66 (2.74, 4.88) in T2DM. In T1DM, HRs (CIs) were 2.69 (1.75, 4.14) for retinopathy, 2.11 (1.38, 3.23) for peripheral neuropathy, and 2.21 (1.53, 3.18) for CKD. The corresponding estimates in T2DM were 1.24 (1.13, 1.36), 1.63 (1.36, 1.96), and 1.73 (1.59, 1.89), respectively.


While a heavier burden of MVD was associated with excess risk of HF both in T1DM and T2DM, the association was evidently more pronounced in T1DM.

See accompanying article, p. 2817.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.20360028.

F.-R.L. and D.N.H. contributed equally to this work.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.
You do not currently have access to this content.