People with type 2 diabetes may have insufficient or prolonged sleep that could accelerate cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset, but existing evidence from prospective studies has been limited. We examined the association of sleep duration with CVD incidence and mortality in this high-risk population.
This prospective study included 18,876 participants with type 2 diabetes in the UK Biobank who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Habitual sleep duration was obtained using a baseline questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association between sleep duration and CVD events.
During an average follow-up of 11.0–12.0 years, we documented 2,570 incident cases of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and 598 CVD deaths. Compared with sleeping for 7 h/day, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of ≤5 and ≥10 h/day were 1.26 (95% CI 1.08, 1.48) and 1.41 (1.16, 1.70) for incident ASCVD, 1.22 (0.99, 1.50) and 1.16 (0.88, 1.52) for coronary artery disease, 1.70 (1.23, 2.35) and 2.08 (1.44, 3.01) for ischemic stroke, 1.02 (0.72, 1.44) and 1.45 (1.01, 2.10) for peripheral artery disease, and 1.42 (1.02, 1.97) and 1.85 (1.30, 2.64) for CVD mortality. Similar results were observed in most sensitivity analyses that aimed to address potential reverse causation and in the joint analyses of sleep duration and metabolic control or diabetes severity status.
Short and long sleep durations were independently associated with increased risks of CVD onset and death among people with type 2 diabetes.
This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.21339069.
H.H. and Y.W. contributed equally to this article.
L.W. and G.Z. contributed equally as senior authors.