To study the interaction among HLA genotype, early probiotic exposure, and timing of complementary foods in relation to risk of islet autoimmunity (IA).


The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study prospectively follows 8,676 children with increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. We used a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for potential confounders to study early feeding and the risk of IA in a sample of 7,770 children.


Any solid food introduced early (<6 months) was associated with increased risk of IA if the child had the HLA DR3/4 genotype and no probiotic exposure during the 1st year of life. Rice introduced at 4–5.9 months compared with later in the U.S. was associated with an increased risk of IA.


Timing of solid food introduction, including rice, may be associated with IA in children with the HLA DR3/4 genotype not exposed to probiotics. The microbiome composition under these exposure combinations requires further study.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.23799882.

S.M.V. and J.M.N. share the last authorship.


The TEDDY Study Group members are listed in the supplementary material online.

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