Type 2 diabetes is a major health concern associated with mortality. Diet may influence the progression of diabetes; however, systematic reviews are lacking.


This study systematically summarized the evidence on diet and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes.


PubMed and Web of Science were searched until June 2022.


Prospective observational studies investigating dietary factors in association with all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes were selected.


We identified 107 studies. Moderate certainty of evidence was found for inverse associations of higher intakes of fish (summary risk ratios per serving/week: 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99; n = 6 studies), whole grain (per 20 g/day: 0.84; 95% CI 0.71, 0.99; n = 2), fiber (per 5 g/day: 0.86; 95% CI 0.81, 0.91; n = 3), and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (per 0.1 g/day: 0.87; 95% CI 0.82, 0.92; n = 2) and mortality. There was low certainty of evidence for inverse associations of vegetable consumption (per 100 g/day: 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94; n = 2), plant protein (per 10 g/day: 0.91; 95% CI 0.87, 0.96; n = 3), and for positive associations of egg consumption (per 10 g/day: 1.05; 95% CI 1.03, 1.08; n = 7) and cholesterol intake (per 300 mg/day: 1.19; 95% CI 1.13, 1.26; n = 2). For other dietary factors, evidence was uncertain or no association was observed.


Higher intake of fish, whole grain, fiber, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence for other dietary factors, and, thus, more research is needed.

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