Metabolic zones were developed to characterize heterogeneity of individuals with islet autoantibodies.


Baseline 2-h oral glucose tolerance test data from 6,620 TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study (TNPTP) autoantibody-positive participants (relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) were used to form 25 zones from five area under the curve glucose (AUCGLU) rows and five area under the curve C-peptide (AUCPEP) columns. Zone phenotypes were developed from demographic, metabolic, autoantibody, HLA, and risk data.


As AUCGLU increased, changes of glucose and C-peptide response curves (from mean glucose and mean C-peptide values at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) were similar within the five AUCPEP columns. Among the zones, 5-year risk for type 1 diabetes was highly correlated with islet antigen 2 antibody prevalence (r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Disease risk decreased markedly in the highest AUCGLU row as AUCPEP increased (0.88–0.41; P < 0.001 from lowest AUCPEP column to highest AUCPEP column). AUCGLU correlated appreciably less with Index60 (an indicator of insulin secretion) in the highest AUCPEP column (r = 0.33) than in other columns (r ≥ 0.78). AUCGLU was positively related to “fasting glucose × fasting insulin” and to “fasting glucose × fasting C-peptide” (indicators of insulin resistance) before and after adjustments for Index60 (P < 0.001).


Phenotypes of 25 zones formed from AUCGLU and AUCPEP were used to gain insights into type 1 diabetes heterogeneity. Zones were used to examine GCRC changes with increasing AUCGLU, associations between risk and autoantibody prevalence, the dependence of glucose as a predictor of risk according to C-peptide, and glucose heterogeneity from contributions of insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.22190029.


A complete list of members of the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group and TrialNet Affiliate Sites is available in the supplementary material.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.
You do not currently have access to this content.