This study aimed to identify current and lifetime prevalence of upper-extremity impairments (UEIs) among individuals with type 1 diabetes and explore factors associated with UEIs.


In a Danish cross-sectional nationwide case-control study, data on UEIs and health behavior were paired with data on sociodemographics and clinical factors from national registers. Participants included individuals with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,245) and a control group (n = 841). Differences between groups were assessed using binomial proportions and multivariable logistic regression.


Compared with controls, individuals with type 1 diabetes were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to experience frozen shoulder (odds ratio [OR] 3.5), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 3.5), trigger finger (OR 5.0), and Dupuytren contracture (OR 4.3). They were also more likely to have several coexisting impairments than the control group (P < 0.01). Diabetes duration was associated with all four impairments.


UEIs are common, particularly among individuals with type 1 diabetes.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.22266280.

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