While continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), insulin pumps, and hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems each improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, it is unclear how the use of these technologies impacts real-world pediatric care.


We found 1,455 patients aged <22 years, with type 1 diabetes duration >3 months, and who had data from a single center in between both 2016–2017 (n = 2,827) and 2020–2021 (n = 2,731). Patients were grouped by multiple daily injections or insulin pump, with or without an HCL system, and using a blood glucose monitor or CGM. Glycemic control was compared using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, diabetes duration, and race/ethnicity.


CGM use increased from 32.9 to 75.3%, and HCL use increased from 0.3 to 27.9%. Overall A1C decreased from 8.9 to 8.6% (P < 0.0001).


Adoption of CGM and HCL was associated with decreased A1C, suggesting promotion of these technologies may yield glycemic benefits.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.22289512.

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