To evaluate change in mean clinic HbA1c from 2014 to 2021 with diabetes technology use in adults with type 1 diabetes.


In this single-center study, we analyzed diabetes technology use and mean clinic HbA1c among unique adults (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes (last visit of the year per patient) between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2021 from the electronic medical record. Diabetes technology use was defined as the use of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) without an automated insulin delivery (AID) system or an AID system. Diabetes technology use and HbA1c over time were analyzed using mixed models adjusted for age, sex, and visit year.


A total of 15,903 clinic visits over 8 years (mean 1,988 patients per year, 4,174 unique patients, 52.7% female, 80.0% Non-Hispanic White) showed significant increases in CGM and AID use (P < 0.001 for both), resulting in an increase of diabetes technology use from 26.9% in 2014 to 82.7% in 2021. These increases were associated with a lower mean clinic HbA1c (7.7–7.5%, P < 0.001) and a higher percentage of adults achieving an HbA1c <7.0% (32.3–41.7%, P < 0.001) from 2014 to 2021. The HbA1c difference between technology users and nonusers increased over time from 0.36% (95% CI 0.26–0.47%, P < 0.001) in 2014 to 0.93% (95% CI 0.80–1.06%, P < 0.001) in 2021.


Adopting diabetes technology in adults with type 1 diabetes decreased HbA1c and increased the number of people achieving an HbA1c <7.0%, supporting the current international recommendation to offer AID systems to most individuals with type 1 diabetes.

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