Data from the Type 1 Diabetes Exercise Initiative Pediatric (T1DEXIP) study were evaluated to understand glucose changes during activity and identify factors that may influence changes.


In this real-world observational study, adolescents with type 1 diabetes self-reported physical activity, food intake, and insulin dosing (multiple-daily injection users) using a smartphone application. Heart rate and continuous glucose monitoring data were collected, as well as pump data downloads.


Two hundred fifty-one adolescents (age 14 ± 2 years [mean ± SD]; HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.3% [54 ± 14.2 mmol/mol]; 42% female) logged 3,738 activities over ∼10 days of observation. Preactivity glucose was 163 ± 66 mg/dL (9.1 ± 3.7 mmol/L), dropping to 148 ± 66 mg/dL (8.2 ± 3.7 mmol/L) by end of activity; median duration of activity was 40 min (20, 75 [interquartile range]) with a mean and peak heart rate of 109 ± 16 bpm and 130 ± 21 bpm. Drops in glucose were greater in those with lower baseline HbA1c levels (P = 0.002), shorter disease duration (P = 0.02), less hypoglycemia fear (P = 0.04), and a lower BMI (P = 0.05). Event-level predictors of greater drops in glucose included self-classified “noncompetitive” activities, insulin on board >0.05 units/kg body mass, glucose already dropping prior to the activity, preactivity glucose >150 mg/dL (>8.3 mmol/L) and time 70–180 mg/dL >70% in the 24 h before the activity (all P < 0.001).


Participant-level and activity event-level factors can help predict the magnitude of drop in glucose during real-world physical activity in youth with type 1 diabetes. A better appreciation of these factors may improve decision support tools and self-management strategies to reduce activity-induced dysglycemia in active adolescents living with the disease.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.24412009.

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