To examine the relationship between gestational glucose intolerance (GGI) and neonatal hypoglycemia.


This was a secondary analysis of 8,262 mother-infant dyads, with delivery at two hospitals between 2014 and 2023. We categorized maternal glycemic status as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), GGI, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We defined NGT according to a normal glucose load test result, GGI according to an abnormal glucose load test result with zero (GGI-0) or one (GGI-1) abnormal value on the 100-g oral glucose tolerance test, and GDM according to an abnormal glucose load test result with two or more abnormal values on the glucose tolerance test. Neonatal hypoglycemia was defined according to blood glucose <45 mg/dL or ICD-9 or ICD-10 diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia. We used logistic regression analysis to determine associations between maternal glucose tolerance category and neonatal hypoglycemia and conducted a sensitivity analysis using Δ-adjusted multiple imputation, assuming for unscreened infants a rate of neonatal hypoglycemia as high as 33%.


Of infants, 12% had neonatal hypoglycemia. In adjusted models, infants born to mothers with GGI-0 had 1.28 (95% 1.12, 1.65), GGI-1 1.58 (95% CI 1.11, 2.25), and GDM 4.90 (95% CI 3.81, 6.29) times higher odds of neonatal hypoglycemia in comparison with infants born to mothers with NGT. Associations in sensitivity analyses were consistent with the primary analysis.


GGI is associated with increased risk of neonatal hypoglycemia. Future research should include examination of these associations in a cohort with more complete neonatal blood glucose ascertainment and determination of the clinical significance of these findings on long-term child health.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.25653348.

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