The cardiorenal benefits of adding sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor therapy for patients on insulin, particularly those on intensive regimens that include short-acting (SA) insulin, have not been explored.


In Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events trial (DECLARE-TIMI 58), 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo for a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Cardiovascular (CV), renal, metabolic, and safety outcomes with dapagliflozin versus placebo by insulin dose and regimen were studied with Cox regression models.


The study included 7,013 insulin users at baseline, with 4,650 (66.3%) patients on regimens including SA insulin. Insulin doses varied, with 2,443 (34.8%) patients receiving <0.5 IU/kg, 2,795 (39.9%) 0.5 to ≤1 IU/kg, and 1,339 (19.1%) >1 IU/kg. Dapagliflozin reduced CV death/hospitalization for heart failure among overall insulin users (hazard ratio [HR] 0.82 [95% CI 0.69–0.97]) and consistently in patients on insulin regimens with or without SA insulin (0.83 [0.67–1.03] and 0.78 [0.57–1.07], respectively, Pinteraction = 0.75). No heterogeneity was observed by insulin dose (Pinteraction = 0.43). The HR for major adverse CV events with dapagliflozin among insulin users (0.84 [0.74–0.97]) was similar irrespective of regimen or dose (Pinteraction = 0.75 and 0.07). Dapagliflozin reduced the rate of adverse renal outcomes overall and consistently across subgroups of insulin users. Decreases in HbA1c, weight, and systolic blood pressure with dapagliflozin were seen regardless of insulin dose or regimen. The known safety profile of dapagliflozin was unchanged in patients on intensive insulin regimens.


The benefits and safety of dapagliflozin were maintained in high-risk patients receiving high-dose or intensive insulin regimens including SA insulin.


  • Limited data exist regarding the cardiorenal, metabolic, and safety outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients on high-dose or intensive insulin regimens including short-acting insulin.

  • In DECLARE-TIMI 58, 17,160 patients including 7,013 baseline insulin users were randomized to dapagliflozin versus placebo. Outcomes among insulin users by insulin dose and regimen were studied.

  • Our results suggest that use of dapagliflozin by patients with type 2 diabetes managed with insulin, including high-dose or intensive insulin regimens, provided significant cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic benefits, in line with overall trial results.

  • Adverse events associated with dapagliflozin, including hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis, were rare in this cohort.

Clinical trial reg. no. NCT01730534, clinicaltrials.gov

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.21330945.

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