While there is evidence that functioning, or ability to perform daily life activities, can be adversely influenced by type 1 diabetes, the impact of acute fluctuations in glucose levels on functioning is poorly understood.


Using dynamic structural equation modeling, we examined whether overnight glucose (coefficient of variation[CV], percent time <70 mg/dL, percent time >250 mg/dL) predicted seven next-day functioning outcomes (mobile cognitive tasks, accelerometry-derived physical activity, self-reported activity participation) in adults with type 1 diabetes. We examined mediation, moderation, and whether short-term relationships were predictive of global patient-reported outcomes.


Overall next-day functioning was significantly predicted from overnight CV (P = 0.017) and percent time >250 mg/dL (P = 0.037). Pairwise tests indicate that higher CV is associated with poorer sustained attention (P = 0.028) and lower engagement in demanding activities (P = 0.028), time <70 mg/dL is associated with poorer sustained attention (P = 0.007), and time >250 mg/dL is associated with more sedentary time (P = 0.024). The impact of CV on sustained attention is partially mediated by sleep fragmentation. Individual differences in the effect of overnight time <70 mg/dL on sustained attention predict global illness intrusiveness (P = 0.016) and diabetes-related quality of life (P = 0.036).


Overnight glucose predicts problems with objective and self-reported next-day functioning and can adversely impact global patient-reported outcomes. These findings across diverse outcomes highlight the wide-ranging effects of glucose fluctuations on functioning in adults with type 1 diabetes.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.22110782.

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