M.R.R. and M.F. contributed equally.


To estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of prediabetes, defined by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).


We reviewed 7,014 publications for high-quality estimates of IGT (2-h glucose, 7.8–11.0 mmol/L [140–199 mg/dL]) and IFG (fasting glucose, 6.1–6.9 mmol/L [110–125 mg/dL]) prevalence for each country. We used logistic regression to generate prevalence estimates for IGT and IFG among adults aged 20–79 years in 2021 and projections for 2045. For countries without in-country data, we extrapolated estimates from countries with available data with similar geography, income, ethnicity, and language. Estimates were standardized to the age distribution for each country from the United Nations.


Approximately two-thirds of countries did not have high-quality IGT or IFG data. There were 50 high-quality studies for IGT from 43 countries and 43 high-quality studies for IFG from 40 countries. Eleven countries had data for both IGT and IFG. The global prevalence of IGT in 2021 was 9.1% (464 million) and is projected to increase to 10.0% (638 million) in 2045. The global prevalence of IFG in 2021 was 5.8% (298 million) and is projected to increase to 6.5% (414 million) in 2045. The 2021 prevalence of IGT and IFG was highest in high-income countries. In 2045, the largest relative growth in cases of IGT and IFG would be in low-income countries.


The global burden of prediabetes is substantial and growing. Enhancing prediabetes surveillance is necessary to effectively implement diabetes prevention policies and interventions.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.22639039.

This content is only available via PDF.
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at https://www.diabetesjournals.org/journals/pages/license.
You do not currently have access to this content.