To examine sex differences in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) with respect to age at diagnosis, presence of autoantibodies (GAD antibody [GADA], insulinoma-associated protein 2 [IA-2A], insulin autoantibody [IAA], and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody), and HLA risk.


A population-based nationwide sample of 3,645 Swedish children at T1D diagnosis was used.


Girls were younger at T1D diagnosis (9.53 vs. 10.23 years; P < 0.001), more likely to be autoantibody-positive (94.7% vs. 92.0%; P = 0.002), more often positive for multiple autoantibodies (P < 0.001), more likely to be positive for GADA (64.9% vs. 49.0%; P < 0.001), and less likely to be positive for IAA (32.3% vs. 33.8%; P = 0.016). Small sex differences in HLA risk were found in children <9 years of age.


The disease mechanisms leading to T1D may influence the immune system differently in girls and boys.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.23999772.

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