Insulin remains the only glucose-lowering treatment modality recommended for totally pancreatectomized patients. We investigated the effects of the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin on fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in pancreatectomized patients and matched healthy control participants.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 10 pancreatectomized patients and 10 matched control participants underwent two 3-h liquid mixed meal tests preceded by two doses of 25 mg empagliflozin (administered the night before and in the morning of the meal test) or placebo, respectively. Basal insulin was administered as usual, but bolus insulin was omitted before the meal test during experimental days.
Compared with placebo, empagliflozin lowered fasting plasma glucose (5.0 ± 0.4 vs. 7.9 ± 0.9 mmol/L [mean ± SEM], P = 0.007) and postprandial plasma glucose excursions as assessed by baseline-subtracted area under the curve (1,080 [733; 1,231] vs. 1,169 [1,036; 1,417] pmol/L × min [median (25th and 75th percentiles)], P = 0.014) in the pancreatectomized patients. In the control participants, empagliflozin lowered fasting plasma glucose compared with placebo (5.1 ± 0.1 vs. 5.5 ± 0.1 mmol/L, P = 0.008) without affecting postprandial glucose excursions significantly. The pancreatomy group exhibited greater postprandial glucagon excursions compared with the control group on both experimental days (P ≤ 0.015); no within-group differences between days were observed.
Empagliflozin administered the day before and immediately before a standardized liquid mixed meal test normalized fasting hyperglycemia and improved postprandial glucose tolerance in pancreatectomized patients.
This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.24021303.