OBJECTIVE

To determine whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived glycemic patterns can characterize pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as diagnosed by standard oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks’ gestation compared with those without GDM.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

The analysis includes 768 individuals enrolled from two sites prior to 17 weeks’ gestation between June 2020 and December 2021 in a prospective observational study. Participants wore blinded Dexcom G6 CGMs throughout gestation. Main outcome of interest was a diagnosis of GDM by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Glycemic levels in participants with GDM versus without GDM were characterized using CGM-measured glycemic metrics.

RESULTS

Participants with GDM (n = 58 [8%]) had higher mean glucose (109 ± 13 vs. 100 ± 8 mg/dL [6.0 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L], P < 0.001), greater glucose SD (23 ± 4 vs. 19 ± 3 mg/dL [1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L], P < 0.001), less time in range 63–120 mg/dL (3.5–6.7 mmol/L) (70% ± 17% vs. 84% ± 8%, P < 0.001), greater percent time >120 mg/dL (>6.7 mmol/L) (median 23% vs. 12%, P < 0.001), and greater percent time >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L) (median 7.4% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001) than those without GDM throughout gestation prior to OGTT. Median percent time >120 mg/dL (>6.7 mmol/L) and time >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L) were higher as early as 13–14 weeks of gestation (32% vs. 14%, P < 0.001, and 5.2% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.001, respectively) and persisted during the entire study period prior to OGTT.

CONCLUSIONS

Prior to OGTT at 24–34 weeks’ gestation, pregnant individuals who develop GDM have higher CGM-measured glucose levels and more hyperglycemia compared with those who do not develop GDM.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.25630338.

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