To compare pregnancy outcomes among women with a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before 20 weeks’ gestation (early) and at 24–28 weeks’ gestation (late) (no gestational diabetes mellitus, or No-GDM), those with early GDM randomized to observation with a subsequent normal OGTT (GDM-Regression), and those with GDM on both occasions (GDM-Maintained).


Women at <20 weeks’ gestation with GDM risk factors who were recruited for a randomized controlled early GDM treatment trial were included. Women with treated early GDM and late GDM (according to the World Health Organization’s 2013 criteria) were excluded from this analysis. Logistic regression compared pregnancy outcomes.


GDM-Regression (n = 121) group risk factor profiles and OGTT results generally fell between the No-GDM (n = 2,218) and GDM-Maintained (n = 254) groups, with adjusted incidences of pregnancy complications similar between the GDM-Regression and No-GDM groups.


Women with early GDM but normal OGTT at 24–28 weeks’ gestation had pregnancy outcomes that were similar to those of individuals without GDM. Identifying early GDM likely to regress would allow treatment to be avoided.

Clinical trial reg. no. ACTRN12616000924459, www.anzctr.org.au


A complete list of TOBOGM Research Group Members can be found in the appendix.

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