While most genetic variants of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are suggested to be associated with β-cell dysfunction cross sectionally, their association with the longitudinal change of β-cell function remains largely unknown.


We analyzed data from 6,311 participants without T2D at baseline (mean [SD] age 51.6 [8.7] years) from a community-based prospective cohort in Korea. Participants underwent biennial 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) during 14 years of follow-up, and the OGTT-derived disposition index (DI) was used as a marker for β-cell function. Genetic risk was quantified using the genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) and was stratified into low (1st quintile), intermediate (2nd–4th quintiles), and high (5th quintile) genetic risk. Lifestyle was assessed according to Life’s Essential 8.


During a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, 374 (29.6%), 851 (22.5%), and 188 (14.9%) participants developed T2D in the high, intermediate, and low genetic risk groups, respectively. Compared with the low genetic risk group, participants in the high genetic risk group had a 25% lower DI at baseline. Furthermore, in longitudinal analysis, we observed a 1.83-fold faster decline in log2-transformed DI per year (−0.034 vs. −0.019, P = 2.1 × 10−3; per 1-SD increase in T2D PRS, P = 1.2 × 10−4). Healthy lifestyle attenuated the rate of decline in DI across all genetic risk groups.


Individuals with a higher genetic risk for T2D exhibited not only a lower OGTT-derived β-cell function at baseline but also a notably more rapid decline during follow-up. This information could be used to enable a focused precision prevention with lifestyle intervention.

This article contains supplementary material online at https://doi.org/10.2337/figshare.25818472.

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