To examine the usefulness of the revised criterion for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes recommended by the American Diabetic Association (ADA) (126 mg/dl, 7 mmol/1), and to characterize insulin response during the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in newly diagnosed Japanese diabetic subjects.
A series of 2,121 Japanese subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT (0–3 h) and were divided into three groups (normal glucose tolerance [NGT], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and diabetes mellitus [DM]) according to the current World Health Organization criteria. After the cutoff values of FPG that distinguish NGT and IGT from diabetes were analyzed, the usefulness of the ADA criterion for FPG was examined by comparing diagnostic parameters (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) with those for the cutoff value of 140 mg/dl. To assess insulin response, both the insulinogenic index (Islx), a marker of early secretion, and the area under the insulin response curve (AUCIns), a marker of total secretion, were compared between the DM, NGT, and 1GT groups.
First, the FPG cutoff value distinguishing NGT from diabetes was 109 mg/dl. An FPG of 126 mg/dl showed a higher sensitivity (0.52 vs. 0.31), the same specificity (1.00), and a higher accuracy (0.82 vs. 0.74) than an FPG of 140 mg/dl, and it had a higher specificity (1.00 vs. 0.86) with a slightly lower accuracy (0.82 vs. 0.85) than an FPG of 109 mg/dl. Second, the FPG cutoff value differentiating IGT from diabetes was 113 mg/dl. An FPG of 126 mg/dl showed a higher sensitivity (0.52 vs. 0.31) and accuracy (0.80 vs. 0.74) and a similar specificity (0.97 vs. 1.00) compared with an FPG of 140 mg/dl, and it had a higher specificity (0.97 vs. 0.82) with the same accuracy (0.80) as an FPG of 113 mg/dl. Third, the DM group showed the lowest Islx among the three groups at all FPG values. The AUCIns in the DM group increased along with FPG, reached the maximum level at an FPG of 110 mg/dl, and declined thereafter. AUCIns was higher in the DM group than in the NGT group at FPG values ≥100 mg/dl.
The revised ADA criterion for FPG of 126 mg/dl may improve diagnostic sensitivity without loss of specificity in Japanese diabetic subjects when compared with an FPG criterion of 140 mg/dl. Although early insulin secretion was impaired, total insulin secretion did not seem to be reduced in newly diagnosed Japanese diabetic subjects.