OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of a polyunsaturated fat diet compared with an isocaloric Mediterranean-style monounsaturated fat diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized 2-week crossover study on either a high-polyunsaturated or a high-monounsaturated fat diet in 11 well-controlled diabetic men. Blood was taken fasting and for up to 8 h after a high fat meal. Lipoproteins were isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B48 and apo B100 were separated by PAGE. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher on the linoleic acid diet compared with the oleic acid diet (P < 0.01 and P < 0.002, respectively). Plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were also significantly higher on the linoleic acid diet (P < 0.001). Likewise, fasting chylomicron apo B48 and apo B100 (P < 0.05) and postprandial chylomicron and VLDL apo B48 and B100 (P < 0.05) were also higher on the linoleic acid diet. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, in type 2 diabetes, an oleic acid-rich Mediterranean-type diet versus a linoleic acid-enriched diet may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by decreasing the number of chylomicron remnant particles.

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