A technical review is a balanced review and analysis of the literature on a scientific or medical topic related to diabetes. The technical review provides a scientific rationale for a position statement and undergoes critical peer review before submission to the Professional Practice Committee for approval. In some cases, original research publications (e.g., Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Study), conference proceedings (e.g., Gestational Diabetes Conference), or other comprehensive review articles are used as the basis for a position statement instead of a technical review. Listed below are recent technical reviews.

Colwell JA: Aspirin therapy in diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:1767–1771, 1997

Schneider SH, Ruderman NB: Exercise and NIDDM (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 13:785–789, 1990

Wasserman DH, Zinman B: Exercise in individuals with IDDM (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:924–937, 1994

Funnell MM, Haas LB: National standards for diabetes self-management education programs (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:100–116, 1995

Clement S: Diabetes self-management education (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:1204–1214, 1995

DeFronzo RA: Diabetic nephropathy: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Diabetes Reviews 3:510– 564, 1995

Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL III, Klein R: Diabetic retinopathy (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:143–156, 1998

Klonoff DC, Schwartz DM: An economic analysis of interventions for diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:390–404, 2000

Wheeler ML, Franz M, Heins J, Schafer R, Holler H, Bohannon B, Bantle JP, Barrier P: Food labeling (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:480–487, 1994

Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Sanders LJ, Janisse D, Pogach LM: Preventive foot care in people with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:2161–2177, 1998

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM: Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 24:131–153, 2001

Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin P: The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 25:134–147, 2002

Cryer PE, Fisher JN, Shamoon H: Hypoglycemia (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:734–755, 1994

Smith SA, Poland GA: Use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in people with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 23:95–108, 2000

Haffner, SM: Management of dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:160–178, 1998

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Purnell JS, Wheeler M: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 25:148–198, 2002

Franz MJ, Horton ES, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Coulston AM, Henry RR, Hoogwerf BJ, Stacpoole PW: Nutrition principles for the management of diabetes and related complications (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:490–518, 1994

Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX: The prevention and treatment of obesity (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:1744–1766, 1997

Robertson RP, Davis C, Larsen J, Stratta R, Sutherland DER. Pancreas and islet transplantation for patients with diabetes (Technical Review) Diabetes Care 23:112–116, 2000

Kitzmiller JL, Buchanan TA, Kjos S, Combs CA, Ratner RE: Preconception care of diabetes, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 19:514–541, 1996

Henry RR: Protein content of the diabetic diet (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:1502–1513, 1994

Warshaw H, Franz M, Powers MA, Wheeler M: Fat replacers: their use in foods and role in diabetes medical nutrition therapy (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 19:1294–1301, 1996

Engelgau MM, Narayan KM, Herman WH: Screening for type 2 diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 23:1563–1580, 2000

Haire-Joshu D, Glasgow RE, Tibbs TL: Smoking and diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 22:1887– 1898, 1999

Weir GC, Nathan DM, Singer DE: Standards of care for diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:1514– 1522, 1994

Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan D, Peterson CM: Tests of glycemia in diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:896–909, 1995

Schafer RG, Bohannon B, Franz M, Freeman J, Holmes A, McLaughlin S, Haas LB, Kruger DF, Lorenz RA, McMahon MM: Translation of the diabetes nutrition recommendations for health care institutions (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:96–105, 1997

Mooradian AD, Failla M, Hoogwerf B, Maryniuk M, Wylie-Rosett J: Selected vitamins and minerals in diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:464–479, 1994