OBJECTIVE—Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to assess the associations between diabetes complications and mortality in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We examined demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the 3,711 subjects enrolled in the ETDRS, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the role of laser photocoagulation and aspirin therapy for diabetic retinopathy. The outcome assessed was all-cause mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations between diabetes complications and mortality for type 1 and type 2 diabetes separately.

RESULTS—The 5-year estimates of all-cause mortality were 5.5 and 18.9% for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. In patients with type 1 diabetes, amputation (hazard ratio [HR] 5.08 [95% CI 2.06–12.54]) and poor visual acuity (1.74 [1.10–2.75]) remained significantly associated with mortality, after adjusting for other diabetes complications and baseline characteristics. In patients with type 2 diabetes, macrovascular disease and worsening levels of nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and visual acuity are associated with progressively increasing risks of mortality, after controlling for other baseline risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS—Amputation is the strongest predictor for mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. All complications independently predict mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. There is an increased risk for mortality as the degree of each complication worsens. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of tertiary prevention to decrease mortality in these patients.

Currently, there are ∼13 million Americans with diagnosed diabetes (1) and millions more who remain unaware that they have the disease (2). This number is expected to increase to 29 million by the year 2050 (3). This presents a serious challenge to the health care system because people with diabetes have an increased mortality and a reduced life expectancy compared with those without diabetes (4). Although consistently underreported on death certificates as a cause of death (5), diabetes ranks as the sixth leading cause of death in the U.S., accounting for >71,000 deaths a year (6). Among those people with diabetes, the majority of deaths are due to the macrovascular complications of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia and stroke (7). In addition to the increased mortality, diabetes is also associated with the morbidity of microvascular diseases, including nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. In fact, diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (8), nontraumatic amputations (9), and adult blindness (10) in the U.S.

A number of studies have found relationships between the macrovascular (1130) and microvascular (3154) complications of diabetes and mortality. However, many of these studies assessed complications individually, failing to consider other putative risk factors and complications. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) was a large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial that enrolled persons with diabetes and retinopathy to study the therapeutic effects of aspirin and laser photocoagulation on the risk of the progression of diabetic retinopathy and vision loss (55). After comprehensive baseline ocular and medical examinations with laboratory tests, patients were followed for 5–9 years. The aim of the current study is to assess the associations between the multiple complications of diabetes and mortality in a population with extensive clinical data. These associations are clinically important to all health care providers who treat and counsel patients with early or late complications of diabetes.

All subjects were participants in the ETDRS, a randomized clinical trial designed to assess photocoagulation and aspirin treatment for patients with diabetic retinopathy (55). The ETDRS enrolled 3,711 subjects aged 18–69 years from April 1980 through July 1985. Inclusion criteria included the diagnosis of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in each eye that was defined as having mild, moderate, or severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) or mild to moderate proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with or without macular edema.

The exclusion criteria for entry into the ETDRS were contraindication to aspirin use, abnormal coagulation factor, systolic blood pressure >210 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >110 mmHg, and a history of renal transplant or renal dialysis. Because of the need for long-term follow-up in this clinical trial, patients with severe renal disease or an unfavorable prognosis for 5 years were excluded from participating in the ETDRS. Informed consent was obtained from each subject before enrollment, and patients were randomly assigned to receive either 650 mg aspirin or placebo daily. Patients were followed for a minimum of 5 years and for as long as 9 years.

Baseline data on age, sex, race, duration of diabetes, use of insulin, use of oral hypoglycemic medications, use of antihypertensive medications, cigarette smoking status (never, former, or current), and alcohol consumption (never, <1 drink/day, or ≥1 drink/day) were obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Patients were classified as having type 1 diabetes if their age at diabetes diagnosis was ≤30 years and they started on continuous insulin use within 1 year of diagnosis or their age at diabetes diagnosis was ≤40 years, they started on continuous insulin within 1 year of diagnosis, and their percentage of desirable weight was <120%. All others were classified as having type 2 diabetes. At the baseline physical examination, the height, weight, and blood pressure of the patients were obtained. BMI was calculated from the height and weight. Baseline laboratory measurements assessed include fasting serum levels of HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, creatinine, hematocrit, plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), and urine protein, tested once at baseline by the dipstick method. After the first 2,709 patients were enrolled, the ETDRS protocol was modified, discontinuing some baseline laboratory measures. Patients were monitored in 4-month intervals with ocular and medical examinations per the ETDRS protocol.

Baseline diabetes complications

The complications of diabetes assessed in this study included macrovascular disease, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, and visual acuity, all assessed at the baseline evaluation. Macrovascular disease was considered to be present if the patient had a history of any of the following: myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attacks, intermittent claudication, antianginal use, or an electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormality.

Nephropathy was categorized into four levels by increasing severity based on the natural history of the disease (56). None/mild proteinuria (level 1) was defined as negative or trace urine protein with serum creatinine ≤1.4 mg/dl. Moderate proteinuria (level 2) was defined as urine protein + or ++ by dipstick measurement and serum creatinine ≤1.4 mg/dl. Severe proteinuria (level 3) was defined as urine protein +++ or ++++ by dipstick measurement and serum creatinine ≤1.4 mg/dl. Increased serum creatinine (level 4) was defined as serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl with any measurable urine protein by dipstick.

Peripheral neuropathy was categorized into four levels by increasing severity. Vibration sensation was performed using a 128-Hz tuning fork placed over the dorsum of the great toe on the boney prominence of the distal interphalangeal joint while the patient’s eyes were closed. Vibration that was felt easily by the examiner’s finger but not appreciated by the subject was considered diminished. Before the examination, a trial was given on the patient’s fingers to be certain that the patient understood the stimulus. Normal (level 1) was defined as normal vibratory sensation and no history or presence of ulceration or amputation. Vibratory sense neuropathy (level 2) was defined as vibratory sense diminished on physical examination with a tuning fork but no history or presence of ulceration or amputation. Ulceration (level 3) was defined as normal or diminished vibratory sensation, history or presence of ulceration, but no amputation. Amputation (level 4) was defined as the history or presence of amputation of any portion of a leg, regardless of sensory loss or ulceration status.

Diabetic retinopathy status was defined at baseline by five levels of increasing severity, based on standardized grading protocol of seven-field stereoscopic fundus photographs of the eye assigned to the deferral of treatment in the ETDRS (57). The categories included the following: none/mild NPDR (level 1, ETDRS score 10–37), moderate NPDR (level 2, ETDRS score 43–47), severe NPDR (level 3, ETDRS score 53–55), mild PDR (level 4, ETDRS score 61), and moderate/high PDR (level 5, ETDRS score 65–85).

Visual acuity was measured using the standardized ETDRS letter charts (58) at 4 m, or 1 m when necessary, and results are given in logMAR units. The best-corrected visual acuity, measured in the eye assigned to the deferral of laser photocoagulation treatment, was categorized into three levels: ≥84 letters (level 1, Snellen equivalent ≥20/20), 69–83 letters (level 2, Snellen equivalent <20/20 −20/40), and <69 letters (level 3, Snellen equivalent <20/40).

Outcome measurement

The outcome in this study was time to all-cause mortality, defined as the occurrence of death of any cause at any time during the period of the study. The Mortality and Morbidity Classification Committee, composed of internists and cardiologists who were not ETDRS investigators, coded the deaths during the study.

Statistical analysis

Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to evaluate the rate of all-cause mortality separately in type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the entire ETDRS population. Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the χ2 and Student’s t test, respectively, for the baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics among the patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between mortality and each of the complications of diabetes (model 1). We then examined Cox proportional hazards models predicting mortality with each of the following baseline covariates: race, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, assignment to aspirin therapy, use of insulin, use of oral hypoglycemic medications, use of antihypertensive medications, use of diuretics, cigarette smoking status (never, former, or current), alcohol consumption (never, <1 drink/day, or ≥1drink/day), HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. If the baseline covariate was significant at the P < 0.05 level, it was added to the age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations between mortality and each of the complications of diabetes (model 2). Finally, all diabetes complications with statistically significant covariates were considered in a final Cox proportional hazards model to predict mortality (model 3). Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 8.2 for Windows (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

Of the total ETDRS population (n = 3,711), the 5-year Kaplan-Meier probability estimates of all-cause mortality during the course of the study were 5.5% (95% CI 4.3–6.7) and 18.9% (17.2–20.6) for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, and diabetes complications of patients, based on type of diabetes and the mortality outcome, are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Those subjects with type 2 diabetes lacking complete baseline laboratory data only differed with regard to race (36.6% white and 43.1% nonwhite; P = 0.0025) from those with complete data. Subjects with type 1 diabetes and incomplete laboratory values did not significantly differ from those with complete data.

Of the ETDRS participants with type 1 diabetes (n = 1,444), ∼8.3% (n = 120) died over a mean follow-up time of 6.0 ± 1.5 years. The most common cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes was an acute coronary event (55%) followed by infection (11%). Those who died were more likely to be older, nonwhite, use diuretic and antihypertensive medications, and have higher levels of the following: systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Patients with type 1 diabetes who died also had significantly different proportions of cigarette use, alcohol use, macrovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and visual acuity compared with those who survived.

Of those with type 2 diabetes (n = 2,267), ∼25.8% died over a mean follow-up time of 5.4 ± 1.8 years. The most common cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes was an acute coronary event (56%) followed by chronic coronary disease (7%). In general, those who died were more likely to be older, use diuretics and antihypertensive medications, and have higher levels of the following: systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Patients with type 2 diabetes who died also had significantly different proportions of cigarette use, macrovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and visual acuity compared with those who survived.

Associations of mortality with diabetes complications

The 5-year life mortality rates by age and sex are presented in Table 3. Age- and sex-adjusted survival plots based on each diabetes complication are shown in Fig. 1. Results of the Cox regression models are summarized in Table 4. After adjusting for age and sex (model 1), the presence of macrovascular disease (HR 1.96 [95% CI 1.33–2.89]), severe proteinuria (2.23 [1.11–4.49]), increased serum creatinine (4.53 [2.64–7.77]), diminished vibratory sense (1.51 [1.00–2.28]), amputation (3.98 [1.84–8.59]), and poor visual acuity (2.25 [1.55–3.25]) in patients with type 1 diabetes were associated with a statistically significant increased risk in all-cause mortality. After adjustment for other statistically significant covariates and other diabetes complications (model 3), amputation (5.08 [2.06–12.54]) and poor visual acuity (1.74 [1.10–2.75]) remained significantly associated with mortality. Statistically significant covariates included in models 2 and 3 for patients with type 1 diabetes included race, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of diuretic and antihypertensive medications.

In patients with type 2 diabetes, macrovascular disease was significantly associated with mortality (HR 2.00 [95% CI 1.69–2.38]) after adjusting for age and sex (model 1). The HRs (95% CI) for increasing severity levels of nephropathy were 2.17 (1.77–2.67), 3.08 (2.13–4.45), and 3.96 (3.17–4.94). The HRs (95% CI) for increasing severity levels of neuropathy were 1.31 (1.09–1.59), 1.87 (1.38–2.52), and 2.25 (1.60–3.15). The HRs (95% CI) for increasing severity levels of retinopathy were 1.37 (1.07–1.75), 1.70 (1.26–2.30), 1.55 (1.04–2.29), and 2.23 (1.55–3.22). Visual acuity <20/40 was also significantly associated with mortality after adjustment for age and sex (1.54 [1.22–1.94]). After adjusting for statistically significant covariates and other complications (model 3), macrovascular disease, all levels of nephropathy and neuropathy, and the poorest levels of retinopathy and visual acuity remained statistically significantly associated with mortality. Statistically significant covariates included in models 2 and 3 for patients with type 2 diabetes included BMI, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, use of diuretic and antihypertensive medications, and daily use of insulin.

The ETDRS was a clinic-based study of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes that provides an opportunity to assess the relationships between different complications of diabetes and mortality. The majority of deaths in the ETDRS population were attributed to acute coronary events, and the 5-year mortality rate for type 2 diabetes (18.9%) was higher than that for type 1 (5.5%). In this report, we have shown that, in general, macrovascular disease and worsening levels of microvascular disease are associated with progressively increasing risks of mortality, even after controlling for other significant risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with type 1 diabetes, mortality was associated with macrovascular disease, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and poor visual acuity. After adjusting for other baseline characteristics and complications, amputation and poor visual acuity remained statistically significantly associated with mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. Of note, our analyses revealed no statistically significant effect of aspirin use on mortality in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. These findings regarding aspirin use are consistent with a previous study addressing mortality in the ETDRS population (59).

The association among diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality is well established (11). In addition to increasing the risk of primary cardiovascular events, diabetes has also been associated with a poorer survival after such an event (1229). In the current study, we demonstrated a relation between a history of macrovascular disease, such as cardiovascular disease, and mortality in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This association persisted in patients with type 2 diabetes after adjustment for other variables that were found to influence mortality. These findings may indicate that those with such a history have a more severe systemic disease or that the pathologic changes localized to the cardiovascular system increase the risk for death in these patients. Even in the absence of known complications, however, diabetes is considered a “coronary equivalent,” because the risk of a future myocardial infarction or stroke in patients with diabetes with no previous myocardial infarction is similar to patients without diabetes who have had a prior (30) or acute (25) myocardial infarction. These findings may be explained by abnormal systolic or diastolic ventricular function, termed diabetic cardiomyopathy (60), that exists in the absence of ischemic cardiomyopathy, yet contributes to mortality in a similar manner. Futhermore, patients with diabetes are more likely to have silent myocardial ischemia (61) and painless ECG changes (62), which may also increase their risk for mortality.

A number of studies have found associations between mortality and various severities of nephropathy in patients with type 1 (3133) and type 2 (31,32,3442) diabetes. Although proteinuria reflects renal processes in patients with diabetes, it is also considered a marker of chronic poor health, vascular permeability, and possibly cardiovascular disease (63). Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that of the 669 patients with type 2 diabetes and at least moderate proteinuria in our study, 358 (54%) patients also had a history of macrovascular disease.

In the current study, we created categories of worsening nephropathy based on what is known of the clinical course of diabetic renal disease (56). In general, we observed statistically significant increasing risks for mortality with worsening levels of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes but not type 1 diabetes. Our findings do not reflect the results of a similar study (32) in patients with type 1 diabetes that revealed nephropathy as the strongest predictor of mortality after controlling for similar covariates and complications of diabetes. This contrast is likely the result of differences in sample size and methods to assess proteinuria between our studies. In our study of patients with type 2 diabetes, however, increased serum creatinine showed the highest HR (2.46 [95% CI 1.83–3.32]) of all diabetes complications after adjusting for all baseline covariates and other complications.

Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes, and excess mortality has been related to diminished peripheral sensation (43), foot ulceration (44), and amputation (4547). Our findings in patients with type 2 diabetes are consistent with these reports. We also show that amputation was the most important predictor for mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes. This is not unexpected, as the mortality rate after amputation has been reported to be two to eight times the rate of those without amputations (4547). The increased mortality associated with the various levels of peripheral neuropathy may be related to concurrent cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, putting the patient at higher risk for cardiovascular mortality. In the current study, the leading cause of death among those patients with a history of amputation was coronary disease with an acute event, supporting the link between severe neuropathy and cardiovascular mortality. Furthermore, we consider amputation as the most severe neuropathic complication of diabetes, when it is also an obvious marker of macrovascular disease.

Of all of the complications of diabetes, retinopathy presents the physician with the unique opportunity to directly visualize and grade the actual pathology of the disease. We chose to include visual acuity in our investigation of diabetes complications to assess the parallel relationship between ocular function and ocular pathology with respect to mortality. Our results in patients with type 2 diabetes are consistent with other studies that have shown associations between mortality and various severities of retinopathy (4856) and poor visual acuity (48,5052). Similar to another study (52), we found that visual impairment but not degree of retinopathy is related to mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes after controlling for covariates. Our findings support the hypothesis that ocular disease may reflect comorbidities and the general health status of the patient.

The generalizability of our study is limited by the fact the ETDRS population was recruited from major ophthalmic clinical centers based on certain ocular criteria. Also, at the time of the ETDRS, patients with diabetes generally had poorer control of glycemia, because the mean HbA1c in ETDRS was 10.1 and 9.4% for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Furthermore, the use of aspirin, antihypertensive medications, especially ACE inhibitors, and cholesterol-lowering medications has become more standard in the care of patients with diabetes since the ETDRS was performed. Although we did not address the effects of aspirin on morbidity in this study, our analyses did not reveal a statistically significant effect of aspirin use on mortality. This confirms the findings in a previous report of the same study population (59).

We acknowledge certain limitations in our study. There is some debate as to the exact criteria for the classification for type 1 or type 2 diabetes. We chose to classify diabetes type based on duration of diabetes, age at diagnosis, BMI, and insulin use. A previous report (64) in a sample of ETDRS subjects revealed that our clinically derived definitions provide good discrimination between the two types of diabetes.

One of the limitations with regard to our assessment of nephropathy is that proteinuria was evaluated with the dipstick method, a single semiquantitative measurement of urine protein, which may limit our ability to accurately distinguish between levels of proteinuria and may attenuate the true strength of any association between proteinuria and mortality. However, a recent study has shown that dipstick grades 0 to 4+ of proteinuria can predict severity levels of the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (65), which reflect the level of protein excretion in the presence of a stable glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, we believe that our categories created for the renal complications of diabetes accurately represent broad levels of worsening nephropathy. This is further supported by our results, which revealed a general trend of increasing odds of mortality with worsening levels of nephropathy, as we would expect.

In the current study, subclinical peripheral neuropathy was primarily assessed through the quantitative sensory testing technique using vibration as a stimulus. The more severe levels of peripheral neuropathy were assessed by history and comprehensive physical examination of the patients’ lower extremities for ulcerations or amputations. Although there are other diagnostic methods to evaluate peripheral neuropathy, such as nerve conduction studies and electromyography, we believe that the methods used in this study reflect clinical practice. Furthermore, we believe that these levels of peripheral neuropathy reflect increasing severity of disease, as foot ulcers usually precede amputation and are caused by several underlying problems, including vibratory sense neuropathy (66).

In summary, the results from our study suggest that the common complications of diabetes are independently associated with subsequent mortality. It is important to note that, in general, these complications are markers of the severity of the disease state of the individual, and although more severe complications can be temporarily managed with local therapies (angioplasty, renal dialysis or transplant, foot care, and laser photocoagulation), the underlying risk factors such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia must be controlled to prevent continued progression of these complications. Therefore, the care of patients with diabetes should first focus on the primary prevention of diabetes complications through the control of modifiable risk factors. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (67) and the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (68) demonstrated the importance of glycemic and blood pressure control in reducing the risk for microvascular end points in persons with diabetes. In addition, specific recommendations have been made with respect to the prevention and early treatment of nephropathy (69) and peripheral neuropathy (70). In patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease, guidelines have emphasized the use of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and glycemic control to lower long-term mortality (71). To further investigate optimal care in these patients, studies are now investigating the role of coronary revascularization procedures and insulin-sensitizing drugs to decrease insulin resistance (72). Further trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of tertiary prevention on mortality in patients with advanced complications of diabetes.

The ETDRS was supported by contracts from the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

1
Lucas JW, Schiller JS, Benson V: Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2001: National Center for Health Statistics.
Vital Health Stat
10
:
218
,
2004
2
Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR, Wiedmeyer HM, Byrd-Holt DD: Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994.
Diabetes Care
21
:
518
–524,
1998
3
Boyle JP, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM, Hoerger TJ, Geiss LS, Chen H, Thompson TJ: Projection of diabetes burden through 2050: impact of changing demography and disease prevalence in the U.S.
Diabetes Care
24
:
1936
–1940,
2001
4
Morgan CL, Currie CJ, Peters JR: Relationship between diabetes and mortality: a population study using record linkage.
Diabetes Care
23
:
1103
–1107,
2000
5
Bild DE, Stevenson JM: Frequency of recording of diabetes on U.S. death certificates: analysis of the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey.
J Clin Epidemiol
45
:
275
–281,
1992
6
Arias E, Anderson RN, Hsiang-Ching K, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD: Deaths: final data for 2001. In
National Vital Statistics Reports
. 
Vol. 52
, no. 3. Hyattsville, MD, National Center for Health Statistics,
2003
7
Winer N, Sowers JR: Epidemiology of diabetes.
J Clin Pharmacol
44
:
397
–405,
2004
8
U.S. Renal Data System:
USRDS 2002 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States
. Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases,
2002
9
Reiber GE, Boyko EJ, Smith DG: Lower extremity foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. In
Diabetes in America
. Washington, D.C., National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases,
1995
, p.
349
–385 (NIH publ. no. 95-1468)
10
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Blindness caused by diabetes: Massachusetts, 1987–1994.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
45
:
937
–941,
1996
11
Nesto RW: Correlation between cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus: current concepts.
Am J Med
116 (Suppl. 5A)
:
11S
–22S,
2004
12
Ulvenstam G, Aberg A, Bergstrand R, Johansson S, Pennert K, Vedin A, Wilhelmsen L, Wilhelmsson C: Long-term prognosis after myocardial infarction in men with diabetes.
Diabetes
34
:
787
–792,
1985
13
Herlitz J, Malmberg K, Karlson BW, Ryden L, Hjalmarson A: Mortality and morbidity during a five-year follow-up of diabetics with myocardial infarction.
Acta Med Scand
224
:
31
–38,
1988
14
Wong ND, Cupples LA, Ostfeld AM, Levy D, Kannel WB: Risk factors for long-term coronary prognosis after initial myocardial infarction: the Framingham Study.
Am J Epidemiol
130
:
469
–480,
1989
15
Sprafka JM, Burke GL, Folsom AR, McGovern PG, Hahn LP: Trends in prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with myocardial infarction and effect of diabetes on survival: the Minnesota Heart Survey.
Diabetes Care
14
:
537
–543,
1991
16
Donahue RP, Goldberg RJ, Chen Z, Gore JM, Alpert JS: The influence of sex and diabetes mellitus on survival following acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective.
J Clin Epidemiol
46
:
245
–252,
1993
17
Karlson BW, Herlitz J, Hjalmarson A: Prognosis of acute myocardial infarction in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Diabet Med
10
:
449
–454,
1993
18
Orlander PR, Goff DC, Morrissey M, Ramsey DJ, Wear ML, Labarthe DR, Nichaman MZ: The relation of diabetes to the severity of acute myocardial infarction and post-myocardial infarction survival in Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites: the Corpus Christi Heart Project.
Diabetes
43
:
897
–902,
1994
19
Abbud ZA, Shindler DM, Wilson AC, Kostis JB: Effect of diabetes mellitus on short- and long-term mortality rates of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a statewide study: Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System Study Group.
Am Heart J
130
:
51
–58,
1995
20
Behar S, Boyko V, Reicher-Reiss H, Goldbourt U: Ten-year survival after acute myocardial infarction: comparison of patients with and without diabetes: SPRINT Study Group: Secondary Prevention Reinfarction Israeli Nifedipine Trial.
Am Heart J
133
:
290
–296,
1997
21
Genes N, Vaur L, Dubroca I, Etienne S, Cambou JP, Danchin N: Prognosis after myocardial infarct in a diabetic patient: results of coronary intensive care unit epidemiological study.
Presse Med
27
:
1003
–1008,
1998
22
Miettinen H, Lehto S, Salomaa V, Mahonen M, Niemela M, Haffner SM, Pyorala K, Tuomilehto J: Impact of diabetes on mortality after the first myocardial infarction: the FINMONICA Myocardial Infarction Register Study Group.
Diabetes Care
21
:
69
–75,
1998
23
Melchior T, Kober L, Madsen CR, Seibaek M, Jensen GV, Hildebrandt P, Torp-Pedersen C: Accelerating impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality in the years following an acute myocardial infarction: TRACE Study Group: Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation.
Eur Heart J
20
:
973
–978,
1999
24
Lowel H, Koenig W, Engel S, Hormann A, Keil U: The impact of diabetes mellitus on survival after myocardial infarction: can it be modified by drug treatment? Results of a population-based myocardial infarction register follow-up study.
Diabetologia
43
:
218
–226,
2000
25
Mukamal KJ, Nesto RW, Cohen MC, Muller JE, Maclure M, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA: Impact of diabetes on long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction: comparability of risk with prior myocardial infarction.
Diabetes Care
24
:
1422
–1427,
2001
26
Donnan PT, Boyle DI, Broomhall J, Hunter K, MacDonald TM, Newton RW, Morris AD: Prognosis following first acute myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: a comparative population study.
Diabet Med
19
:
448
–455,
2002
27
Cho E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB: The impact of diabetes mellitus and prior myocardial infarction on mortality from all causes and from coronary heart disease in men.
J Am Coll Cardiol
40
:
954
–960,
2002
28
Jonas M, Reicher-Reiss H, Boyko V, Behar S, Grossman E: Hospital and 1-year outcome after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
J Hum Hypertens
17
:
665
–670,
2003
29
Zia S, Hasan ZU: Survival after myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes.
J Pak Med Assoc
54
:
73
–80,
2004
30
Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M: Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction.
N Engl J Med
339
:
229
–234,
1998
31
Stephenson JM, Kenny S, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Lee E: Proteinuria and mortality in diabetes: the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes.
Diabet Med
12
:
149
–155,
1995
32
Muhlhauser I, Overmann H, Bender R, Jorgens V, Berger M: Predictors of mortality and end-stage diabetes complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensified insulin therapy.
Diabet Med
17
:
727
–734,
2000
33
Fuller JH, Stevens LK, Wang SL, WHO Multinational Study Group: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity: the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes.
Diabetologia
44 (Suppl. 2)
:
S54
–S64,
2001
34
Mogensen CE: Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes.
N Engl J Med
310
:
356
–360,
1984
35
Schmitz A, Vaeth M: Microalbuminuria: a major risk factor in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: a 10-year follow-up study of 503 patients.
Diabet Med
5
:
126
–134,
1988
36
Damsgaard EM, Froland A, Jorgensen OD, Mogensen CE: Microalbuminuria as predictor of increased mortality in elderly people.
BMJ
300
:
297
–300,
1990
37
Mattock MB, Morrish NJ, Viberti G, Keen H, Fitzgerald AP, Jackson G: Prospective study of microalbuminuria as predictor of mortality in NIDDM.
Diabetes
41
:
736
–741,
1992
38
Stiegler H, Standl E, Schulz K, Roth R, Lehmacher W: Morbidity, mortality, and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients: a three-year prospective study of a random cohort in general practice.
Diabet Med
9
:
646
–653,
1992
39
Neil A, Hawkins M, Potok M, Thorogood M, Cohen D, Mann J: A prospective population-based study of microalbuminuria as a predictor of mortality in NIDDM.
Diabetes Care
16
:
996
–1003,
1993
40
Chan JC, Cheung CK, Cheung MY, Swaminathan R, Critchley JA, Cockram CS: Abnormal albuminuria as a predictor of mortality and renal impairment in Chinese patients with NIDDM.
Diabetes Care
18
:
1013
–1006,
1995
41
Valmadrid CT, Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BE: The risk of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with microalbuminuria and gross proteinuria in persons with older-onset diabetes mellitus.
Arch Intern Med
160
:
1093
–1100,
2000
42
Gimeno Orna JA, Boned Juliani B, Lou Arnal LM, Castro Alonso FJ: Microalbuminuria and clinical proteinuria as the main predictive factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Rev Clin Esp
203
:
526
–531,
2003
43
Coppini DV, Bowtell PA, Weng C, Young PJ, Sonksen PH: Showing neuropathy is related to increased mortality in diabetic patients: a survival analysis using an accelerated failure time model.
J Clin Epidemiol
53
:
519
–523,
2000
44
Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Smith DG, Davignon D: Increased mortality associated with diabetic foot ulcer.
Diabet Med
13
:
967
–972,
1996
45
Tseng CH, Tai TY, Chong CK, Chen CJ, Lin BJ: Mortality in diabetic patients after lower extremity amputations.
J Formos Med Assoc
93
:
842
–848,
1994
46
Ebskov LB: Relative mortality in lower limb amputees with diabetes mellitus.
Prosthet Orthot Int
20
:
147
–152,
1996
47
Chaturvedi N, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Lee ET, Lu M: Risk factors, ethnic differences and mortality associated with lower-extremity gangrene and amputation in diabetes: the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes.
Diabetologia
44 (Suppl. 2)
:
S65
–S71,
2001
48
Davis MD, Hiller R, Magli YL, Podgor MJ, Ederer F, Harris WA, Long JW, Haug GA: Prognosis for life in patients with diabetes: relation to severity of retinopathy.
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc
77
:
144
–170,
1979
49
Sharma NK, Archer DB, Hadden DR, Merrett JD, Maguire CJ: Morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K
100
:
83
–89,
1980
50
Knatterud GL: Mortality experience in the diabetic retinopathy study.
Isr J Med Sci
19
:
424
–428,
1983
51
Hanis CL, Chu HH, Lawson K, Hewett-Emmett D, Barton SA, Schull WJ, Garcia CA: Mortality of Mexican Americans with NIDDM: retinopathy and other predictors in Starr County, Texas.
Diabetes Care
16
:
82
–89,
1993
52
Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ: Association of ocular disease and mortality in a diabetic population.
Arch Ophthalmol
117
:
1487
–1495,
1999
53
Rajala U, Pajunpaa H, Koskela P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S: High cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with visual impairment caused by diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes Care
23
:
957
–961,
2000
54
Van Hecke MV, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Moll AC, Van Leiden HA, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD, Polak BC: Retinopathy is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects: the Hoorn Study (Letter).
Diabetes Care
26
:
2958
,
2003
55
Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study design and baseline patient characteristics: ETDRS report number 7.
Ophthalmology
98 (Suppl. 5)
:
741
–756,
1991
56
Skyler JS: Microvascular complications.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am
30
:
833
–856,
2001
57
Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group: Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs: an extension of the modified Airlie House classification: ETDRS report number 10.
Ophthalmology
98 (Suppl. 5)
:
786
–806,
1991
58
Ferris FL, 3rd, Kassoff A, Bresnick GH, Bailey I: New visual acuity charts for clinical research.
Am J Ophthalmol
94
:
91
–96,
1982
59
ETDRS Investigators: Aspirin effects on mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report 14.
JAMA
268
:
1292
–1300,
1992
60
Zarich SW, Nesto RW: Diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Am Heart J
118
:
1000
–1012,
1989
61
Naka M, Hiramatsu K, Aizawa T, Momose A, Yoshizawa K, Shigematsu S, Ishihara F, Niwa A, Yamada T: Silent myocardial ischemia in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as judged by treadmill exercise testing and coronary angiography.
Am Heart J
123
:
46
–53,
1992
62
Koistinen MJ, Huikuri HV, Pirttiaho H, Linnaluoto MK, Takkunen JT: Evaluation of exercise electrocardiography and thallium tomographic imaging in detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease in diabetic patients.
Br Heart J
63
:
7
–11,
1990
63
Weinstock Brown W, Keane WF: Proteinuria and cardiovascular disease.
Am J Kidney Dis
38 (Suppl. 1)
:
S8
–S13,
2001
64
Prior MJ, Prout T, Miller D, Ewart R, Kumar D, the ETDRS Research Group: C-peptide and the classification of diabetes mellitus patients in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study: report number 6.
Ann Epidemiol
3
:
9
–17,
1993
65
Agarwal R, Panesar A, Lewis RR: Dipstick proteinuria: can it guide hypertension management?
Am J Kidney Dis
39
:
1190
–1195,
2002
66
Jeffcoate WJ, Harding KG: Diabetic foot ulcers.
Lancet
361
:
1545
–1551,
2003
67
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
N Engl J Med
329
:
977
–986,
1993
68
UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33).
Lancet
352
:
837
–853,
1998
69
Strippoli GF, Di Paolo S, Cincione R, Di Palma AM, Teutonico A, Grandaliano G, Schena FP, Gesualdo L: Clinical and therapeutic aspects of diabetic nephropathy.
J Nephrol
16
:
487
–499,
2003
70
Petit WA Jr, Upender RP: Medical evaluation and treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg
20
:
671
–688,
2003
71
Klein L, Gheorghiade M: Management of the patient with diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction: clinical trials update.
Am J Med
116 (Suppl. 5A)
:
47S
–63S,
2004
72
Frye RL: Optimal care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease.
Am J Med
115 (Suppl. 8A)
:
93S
–98S,
2003

A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.