• age in diagnosis, S14

  • CGM effects on, S39, S40, S101

  • in children, S18, S41

  • in children, adolescents, S87

  • CVD outcomes and, S42–S43

  • diagnostic criteria, S13–S14

  • epidemiology, S7

  • goals, S41

  • hyperglycemia and, S9–S10

  • limitations, S41

  • mean glucose levels-specified A1C level, S41

  • microvascular complications, S42

  • older adults, S83

  • pregnancy levels, S95

  • race/ethnicity differences, S14, S41

  • recommendations, S40, S41

  • testing, S40–S41

acarbose, S55

access to health care, S8–S9

ACCORD trial, S10, S31–S32, S42–S44, S61, S62

ACE inhibitors, S61–S63, S68, S72–S74, S89, S97

ADAG study, S41, S44

adherence, S8

ADVANCE trial, S42–S44, S61

advocacy, S6, S105–S106

African Americans, S14, S15, S27

AIM-HIGH trial, S65–S66

albiglutide, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58

albuminuria, S29, S72–S74, S90

alcohol, S26, S65

alogliptin, S53–S55, S68

amlodipine, S63

amputation, S78

amylin mimetics, S53, S56

anemia, S14

angiotensin receptor blockers, S61, S62, S68, S72–S74, S89, S97

antidepressants, S49

antihyperglycemic agents, S100–S101

antihypertensive agents, S63, S97

antiplatelet agents, S4–S5, S66–S67, S75

antipsychotics, S49

antiretroviral agents, S10

Antithrombotic Trialists’ (ATT) metanalysis, S66

antivascular endothelial growth factor, S75, S76

Asian Americans, S8, S15, S17, S47

ASPIRE trial, S40

aspirin resistance, S67

aspirin therapy, S4–S5, S66–S67, S75

atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. see cardiovascular disease

atorvastatin, S64

autonomic neuropathy, S29, S76–S78

α-glucosidase inhibitors, S37, S55

bariatric surgery, S49–S51, S58

β-blockers, S74

Belviq (lorcaserin), S50

benazepril, S63

bile acid sequestrants, S55

bipolar disorder, S10

blood glucose control. see glycemic control

blood pressure control, S60–S63, S81, S88–S89

body mass index (BMI), S17

bromocriptine, S55

calcium channel blockers, S74

canagliflozin, S53, S54, S56, S58

cancer, S31

capsaicin, S77

carbamazepine, S77

carbohydrates, S27, S37

cardiac autonomic neuropathy, S77

cardiac testing, S67

cardiovascular disease

  • antiplatelet agents, S4–S5, S66–S67, S75

  • in children, adolescents, S88–S89

  • heart failure, S68

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S60–S63, S81, S88–S89

  • insulin regimens, S43

  • LDL cholesterol, S64, S65, S68

  • lifestyle modification, S7, S36–S37, S47, S48, S62–S64, S68

  • lipid management, S63–S66

  • outcomes, S42–S43, S73

  • overview, S4, S60

  • pharmacological interventions, S62–S63

  • prevention, S26, S27, S37

  • risk calculator tool, S64

  • as risk factor, S16, S60

  • risk factors for, S15, S17, S29, S31, S60, S64, S74

  • smoking and, S29, S89

care improvement strategies

  • adherence, S8

  • advocacy, S6, S105–S106

  • chronic care model, S7

  • delivery systems, S7

  • demographics, S6

  • institutional changes, S7–S8

  • intermediate outcomes, S8

  • objectives, S7–S8

  • outcomes, S8

  • patient-centered, S6

  • processes of care, S8

  • recommendations, S6, S9, S10

  • team building, S7

  • treatment intensification, S8

child care, school, S86–S87, S105

children, adolescents

  • A1C levels in, S18, S41

  • autoimmune diseases in, S87–S88

  • celiac disease in, S88

  • diabetes management, S87

  • DSME, DSMS, S7, S8–S9, S24–S25, S36, S37, S86

  • dyslipidemia management, S89

  • exercise for, S28

  • glycemic control, S87, S89

  • hypertension, S88–S89

  • hypoglycemia in, S44, S87

  • nephropathy, S27, S29, S72–S74, S89–S90

  • neuropathy, S28–S29, S76–S78, S90

  • pediatric to adult care transition, S91

  • psychosocial issues, S87

  • retinopathy, S28, S73–S76, S90

  • school, child care, S86–S87, S105

  • screening, S87

  • smoking in, S29, S89

  • statins in, S89

  • thyroid disease in, S88

  • type 1 diabetes in, S86–S90

  • type 2 diabetes in, S90–S91

  • vaccination schedule, S29

chlorthalidone, S63

chronic care model, S7, S23

chronic kidney disease, S27, S72–S74

Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, S73

classification, S13

clinical evaluation, S23, S24

clopidogrel, S66

clozapine, S49

cognitive dysfunction, S9–S10, S26, S31–S32, S44, S82

cognitive function, statin use and, S66

colesevelam, S55


  • A1C, microvascular, S42

  • epidemiology, S8

  • prevention of, S7, S27

  • risk factors, S14, S29

consensus reports, S1

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S39, S40, S101

Contrave (naltrexone/bupropion), S50

coronary artery calcium screening, S67–S68

coronary heart disease, S8, S67–S68

correctional facilities, S106

cultural differences, S8

cystic fibrosis, S18

cystic fibrosis–related diabetes, S20

dapagliflozin, S53, S54, S56, S58

dementia, S9, S31–S32, S82

depression, S10, S30

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S42, S44, S52, S87

diabetes distress, S30

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), S36, S37

Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), S36

Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program (DPRP), S37

diabetes self-management education, support (DSME, DSMS), S7, S8–S9, S24–S25, S36, S37, S86, S102

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), S13, S16–S17, S45, S58, S90, S101

diabetic kidney disease, S27, S29, S72–S74

Diabetic Retinopathy Study, S76


  • A1C (see A1C)

  • anemia, S14

  • community screening, S17–S18

  • comorbidities, S31–S32

  • confirmation of, S14

  • fasting test, S13, S14

  • hemoglobinopathies, S14

  • monogenic syndromes, S19–S20

  • one-step strategy, S18–S20

  • plasma glucose criteria, S13

  • prediabetes, S14–S17, S36

  • red blood cell turnover, S14

  • referrals, S30

  • 2-hour plasma glucose, S13, S14

  • two-step strategy, S19, S20

  • type 1 diabetes (see type 1 diabetes)

  • type 2 diabetes (see type 2 diabetes)

diastolic blood pressure, S62

diuretics, S61–S63, S74, S97

dopamine-2 agonists, S55

DPP-4 inhibitors, S53–S55, S58, S68, S101

driving, S105

dulaglutide, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58

duloxetine, S77

dyslipidemia, S65, S83, S89

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, S76

eating patterns, S26

e-cigarettes, S29

empagliflozin, S53, S54, S56, S58, S68


employment, S105–S106

end of life treatment, S82–S85

energy balance, S26

erectile dysfunction, S77–S78

ethnic differences, S8, S14, S17, S41

euthyroid sick syndrome, S88

evaluation, S23, S24, S31

EXAMINE trial, S68

exenatide, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58

exercise, S27–S29, S37, S48

ezetimibe, S64, S65

fasting test, S13, S14

fats, S26, S27. see also lipid management

fatty liver disease, S31

fibrate/statin therapy, S65

5-HT receptor agonists, S50

fluvastatin, S64

food insecurity, S9

foot care, S78–S79

foundations of care, S23

fractures, S31

gabapentin, S77

gastrointestinal neuropathies, S77

gastroparesis, S77

gender differences, S8

genitourinary neuropathies, S77

gestational diabetes mellitus, S18–S20, S37, S94–S97

glibenclamide, S55

gliclazide, S55

glimepiride, S55

glipizide, S55

glomerular filtration rate estimation, S73

GLP1 receptor agonists, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58, S83

glucagon, S44

glucocorticoids, S101

glucose, S44. see also glycemic control

glyburide, S55, S83, S96

glycemic control

  • A1C (see A1C)

  • carbohydrate-counting, S27

  • children, adolescents, S87, S89

  • continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S39, S40, S101

  • hospital care, S100, S101

  • hyperglycemia, S9–S10, S42, S45, S96, S99–S101

  • hypoglycemia (see hypoglycemia)

  • intercurrent illness, S45

  • kidney disease treatment, S73–S74

  • neurocognitive function, S82

  • neuropathy treatment, S77

  • older adults, S82, S83

  • omega-3 fatty acids, S27

  • physical activity in, S28

  • pregnancy, S95

  • recommendations, S39, S43, S44

  • self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S39–S40

  • targets, S43–S44

GRADE study, S54

grading system, S1–S2

health care access, S8–S9

health disparities, S8

hearing impairment, S31

heart failure, S68

hemoglobinopathies, S14

hepatitis B, S30

herbal supplements, S26

HITECH Act, S99–S100

HIV patients, diabetes care in, S10

homelessness, S9

hospital care

  • admissions considerations, S100

  • antihyperglycemic therapies, S100–S101

  • bedside glucose monitoring, S103

  • CGM, S39, S40, S101

  • computerized physician order entry, S99–S100

  • critical care setting, S100

  • diabetes self-management, S102

  • diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), S13, S16–S17, S45, S58, S90, S101

  • discharge plan, S102–S103

  • enteral/parenteral feeding, S101

  • glucocorticoids, S101

  • glycemic control, S100, S101

  • hyperglycemia in, S100

  • hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S101

  • hypoglycemia, S99–S102

  • insulin therapy, S99, S100

  • medical nutrition therapy, S25–S27, S102

  • perioperative care, S101

  • recommendations, S99

  • target glucose ranges, S99–S101

  • type 1 diabetes, S100

HOT trial, S62

hydrochlorothiazide, S63

hyperglycemia, S9–S10, S42, S45, S96, S99–S101

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study, S18

hypertension, S60–S63, S81, S88–S89

hypertriglyceridemia, S65


  • in children, adolescents, S44, S87

  • glycemic control, S27, S28, S40

  • hospital care, S99–S102

  • maternal, S95

  • nutrition in control of, S27

  • in older adults, S82, S84

  • physical activity in control of, S28

  • predictors of, S102

  • prevention, S9, S27, S28, S101–S102

  • symptoms, S10

  • treatment, S9, S44, S101–S102

  • type 1 diabetes, S44–S45

hypoglycemia unawareness, S44

immune-mediated type 1 diabetes, S15

immunizations, S29–S30

IMPROVE-IT trial, S65

incident diabetes, statin use and, S66

incretin-based therapies, S53

indapamide-perindopril, S62–S63

infections, S79

influenza, S29

insulin, insulin secretagogues

  • basal, S40, S54, S57–S58

  • bolus, S58

  • carbohydrate-counting, S27

  • characterization, S56

  • in children, adolescents, S90

  • continuous subcutaneous infusion, S58

  • CVD-targeting, S43

  • hospital care, S99, S100

  • hypoglycemia unawareness, S44

  • inhaled, S58

  • neurocognitive function, S82

  • older adults, S83

  • oral agents, S40, S57–S58

  • physical activity, S28

  • physiology in pregnancy, S95, S96

  • self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S39–S40

  • type 1 diabetes, S52–S53

insurance, S9

islet cell transplantation, S53

Japanese Americans, S17

Kumamoto Study, S42

laser photocoagulation therapy, S75, S76

LDL cholesterol, S64, S65, S68

lifestyle modification, S7, S36–S37, S47, S48, S62–S64, S68

linagliptin, S53–S55

lipase inhibitors, S37, S50

lipid management, S63–S66. see also fats

lipid profiles, S65

liraglutide, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58

liraglutide (Saxenda), S50

literacy deficiencies, S9

lixisenatide, S50, S53, S54, S56, S58

Look AHEAD, S47, S68

lorcaserin (Belviq), S50

loss of protective sensation, S78

lovastatin, S64

macular edema, S75, S76

MAO inhibitors, S49

maturity-onset diabetes, S19, S19–S20

medical evaluation, S31

medical nutrition therapy, S25–S27, S102. see also nutrition

Medicare, S8, S25

medications, S10, S17, S49, S103. see also under specific conditions

Mediterranean diet, S10, S27, S37

meglitinides, S54, S55

mental illness, S10


  • cardiovascular disease, S67, S68

  • children, adolescents, S90

  • effectiveness of, S36, S37

  • hospital care, S101

  • older adults, S83

  • in pregnancy, S96

  • therapy generally, S53–S55

metoclopramide, S77

miglitol, S55

mineralocorticoid receptor blockers, S74

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, S73

naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave), S50

nateglinide, S54, S55

neonatal diabetes, S19

nephrologist, referrals to, S74

nephropathy, S27, S29, S72–S74, S89–S90

neuropathy, S28–S29, S76–S78, S90

NHANES study, S7

niacin/statin therapy, S65–S66

NICE-SUGAR study, S100

nonketotic hyperosmolar state, S45

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), S10

numeracy deficiencies, S9


  • alcohol, S26, S65

  • carbohydrates, S27, S37

  • cognitive dysfunction and, S10

  • in diabetes prevention, S37

  • eating patterns, S26

  • energy balance, S26

  • fats, S26, S27

  • herbal supplements, S26

  • kidney disease treatment, S73

  • macronutrient distribution, S26

  • micronutrients, S26

  • older adults, S84

  • protein, S26, S27

  • sodium, S26, S27


  • assessment, S47

  • bariatric surgery, S49–S51, S58

  • concomitant medications, S49

  • diet, S48 (see also nutrition)

  • lifestyle modification, S7, S36–S37, S47, S48, S62–S64, S68

  • pharmacotherapy, S48–S50

  • physical activity, S27–S29, S37, S48

  • recommendations, S48

  • treatment, S47, S48

  • weight management, S25–S27, S68

obstructive sleep apnea, S31

olanzapine, S49

older adults

  • end of life treatment, S82–S85

  • geriatric syndromes screening, S81

  • hypertension, S81

  • hypoglycemia, S82, S84

  • long-term care facilities, S81, S84

  • neurocognitive function, S82

  • nutrition, S84

  • overview, S81–S82

  • palliative care, S60–S63, S81

  • pharmacological therapy, S83–S84

  • recommendations, S81

  • treatment, S82–S83

omega-3 fatty acids, S27

ophthalmologist, referrals to, S75

opioid antagonist/aminoketone antidepressant combination, S50

orlistat, S37, S50

orthostatic hypotension, S77

pancreatic transplantation, S53

Patient-Centered Medical Home, S7

PCSK9 inhibitors, S65

percent of days covered (PDC), S8

perindopril-indapamide, S62–S63

periodontal disease, S31

peripheral arterial disease (PAD), S78

peripheral neuropathy, S28–S29, S76–S78

phentermine/topiramate combination, S50

photocoagulation therapy, S75

physical activity, S27–S29, S37, S48

pioglitazone, S37, S54, S55

pitavastatin, S64

plasma glucose criteria, S13

pneumococcal pneumonia, S29–S30

pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPSV23), S29–S30

POC meters, S103

position statements, S1

pramlintide, S53, S56

pravastatin, S64

prediabetes, S14–S17, S36

pregabalin, S77

pregestational diabetes, S94–S96


  • A1C levels, S95

  • antihypertensive medications in, S63, S97

  • blood pressure targets, S61

  • contraception, S97

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S18–S20, S37, S94–S97

  • glucose monitoring, S95

  • glycemic control, S95

  • hyperglycemia, S96

  • insulin physiology, S95, S96

  • lactation, S96–S97

  • pharmacological therapy, S96, S97

  • postpartum care, S96–S97

  • preconception counseling, testing, S95

  • pregestational diabetes, S94–S96

  • recommendations, S94

  • retinopathy, S75–S76

  • type 1 diabetes, S96–S97

  • type 2 diabetes, S96–S97

Professional Practice Committee, S3, S107–S108

proliferative diabetic retinopathy, S75, S76

protease inhibitors, S10

protein, S26, S27

psychosocial issues, S30, S87

P2Y12 receptor antagonists, S67

red blood cell turnover test, S14

referrals, S24, S30, S74, S75

reimbursement, DSME/DSMS, S25

renal function assessment, S72–S73

repaglinide, S54, S55

resistance training, S27

retinal photography, S75

retinopathy, S28, S73–S76, S90

revisions summary, S4–S5

Reye syndrome, S67

risperidone, S49

rosiglitazone, S37, S54, S55

rosuvastatin, S64

SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial, S68

saxagliptin, S53–S55, S68

Saxenda (liraglutide), S50

schizoaffective disorder, S10

schizophrenia, S10

school, child care, S86–S87, S105

scientific evidence grading, S1–S2

scientific statements, S1

SEARCH study, S89

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S39–S40

sex differences, S8

SGLT2 inhibitors, S53, S54, S56, S58, S83

simvastatin, S64

sitagliptin, S53–S55, S68

smoking cessation, S29, S89

socioeconomic differences, S8

sodium, S26, S27

spironolactone, S74

SPRINT trial, S61–S62

SSRIs, S49

Standards of Care, S1


  • in CHD management, S68

  • children, adolescents, S89

  • cognitive function and, S66

  • dementia and, S10

  • in lipid management, S64–S66

  • type 1 diabetes, S64–S65

  • type 2 diabetes, S63–S66

sulfonylureas, S54, S55, S58, S83, S96, S101

sympathomimetic amine anorectic/antiepileptic combination, S50

systolic blood pressure, S62

tapentadol, S77

TECOS trial, S68

testosterone levels, S31

thiazolidinediones, S37, S54, S55, S67, S83

thyroid disease, S88

tobacco, S29, S89

TODAY study, S90

tramadol, S77

Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) study, S8

treatment. see also specific therapies

  • adherence, S8

  • DSME, DSMS, S7, S8–S9, S24–S25

  • exercise, S27–S29, S37, S48

  • foundations of care, S23

  • glucose, S44

  • hypoglycemia, S44

  • immunizations, S29–S30

  • initial care basis, S23–S24

  • intensification, S8

  • lifestyle modification, S7, S36–S37, S47, S48, S62–S64, S68

  • medical nutrition therapy, S25–S27, S102

  • ongoing care, S24

  • patient engagement, S23

  • pharmacological, S36, S37

  • psychosocial issues, S30

  • referrals, S24

  • smoking cessation, S29, S89

  • tailoring, S8–S9

  • technology in, S37

  • type 1 diabetes, S52–S53

  • type 2 diabetes, S53–S58

  • weight management, S25–S27, S68

tricyclic antidepressants, S49, S77

2-hour plasma glucose, S13, S14

type 1 diabetes

  • A1C microvascular complications, S42

  • carbohydrate-counting, S27

  • in children, adolescents, S86–S90

  • classification, S13

  • CVD outcomes and, S42

  • demographics, S6

  • diagnosis, S15–S16

  • differential diagnosis, S18

  • epidemiology, S8

  • glycemic control, S39

  • hospital care, S100

  • hypoglycemia, S9, S44–S45

  • idiopathic, S15–S16

  • immune-mediated, S15

  • pharmacologic therapy, S52–S53

  • physical activity, S27–S29

  • pregnancy, S96–S97

  • retinopathy, S75

  • risk factors, S16

  • statin therapy, S64–S65

type 2 diabetes

  • A1C microvascular complications, S42

  • bariatric surgery, S49–S51, S58

  • BMI, ethnicity factors, S17

  • carbohydrate-counting, S27

  • children, adolescents, S18, S19

  • in children, adolescents, S90–S91

  • classification, S13

  • combination therapy, S53–S57

  • CVD outcomes and, S42–S43

  • demographics, S6, S8

  • diagnosis, S16–S19

  • differential diagnosis, S18, S19

  • exercise, S27–S29

  • glycemic control, S40

  • hyperglycemia in, S9–S10

  • hypoglycemia, S9

  • hypoglycemia in, S10

  • mental illness in, S10

  • obesity in, S48

  • pharmacologic therapy, S53–S58

  • pregnancy, S96–S97

  • prevention, delay, S36–S37

  • resistance training, S27

  • retinopathy, S75

  • risk factors, S17

  • statin therapy, S63–S66

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S42, S67, S74

venlafaxine, S77

Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), S42–S43

vildagliptin, S53–S55

weight management, S25–S27, S68