A1C, S4, S18–S19

  • advantages of, S18

  • and cardiovascular disease outcomes, S88–S89

  • confirming diagnosis with, S19

  • correlation with BGM, S84

  • in diagnosis of adults, S18–S19

  • in diagnosis of children, S18–S19

  • differences in children, S84–S85

  • hemoglobinopathies and, S19

  • limitations, S84

  • other conditions affecting, S19

  • point-of-care assays, S4, S18

  • in prediabetes, S23

  • in pregnancy, S235

  • race/ethnicity and, S19, S84–S85

  • recommendations, S19

  • setting and modifying goals for, S89–S90

acarbose, S121, S137

access to care, S10–S11

access, to insulin, S254–S255

ACCORD study, S54, S87–S88, S91, S146, S147, S148, S154, S178, S179, S197

ACE inhibitors, S6, S7, S51, S148, S149, S150, S158, S176, S178, S181, S182, S209, S216, S218, S222, S233, S239

acute kidney injury, S150, S178

ADA consensus report, S1–S2

ADA evidence-grading system, S2

ADA Professional Practice Committee, S1, S3

ADA statements, S1

ADAG study, S84–S85, S90, S91

Addison disease, S53

adolescents. see children and adolescents.

adrenal insufficiency, primary, S53

adult-onset diabetes. see Type 2 diabetes.

adults, prediabetes and diabetes screening in, S22, S25–S26

ADVANCE trial, S87–S88, S91, S146, S147

advocacy statements, S7, S254–S255

  • care of young children with diabetes in the childcare setting, S255

  • diabetes and driving, S255

  • diabetes and employment, S255

  • diabetes care in correctional institutions, S255

  • diabetes care in the school setting, S255

  • insulin access and affordability, S254–S255

affordability, of insulin, S254–S255

African Americans, S11, S20, S21, S22, S25, S68, S91

  • A1C variability in, S19, S23, S84–S85

  • BMI cut point in, S26


  • effect on A1C, S19–S20

  • risk factor for diabetes, S25

  • statin treatment and, S151

agricultural workers, migrant, S12

AIM-HIGH trial, S154–S155

albiglutide, S165, S166, S167

albuminuria, S66, S70, S91, S133, S145, S147, S149, S150, S156, S167, S176, S177, S178, S179, S180, S181, S182, S215, S217, S218

alcohol intake, S67

alirocumab, S153

alogliptin, S133, S137, S159, S167, S247

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, S137

ambulatory glucose profile (AGP), S85, S86, S87

amputation, foot, S190, S191

analogs. see insulin analogs.

angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), S6, S149, S150, S158, S178, S180, S181, S182, S209, S210

anti-VEGF agents, S187–S188

antibiotics, S192

antiplatelet agents, S155–S157

antipsychotics, atypical, S26, S74

antiretroviral therapies, S26

anxiety disorders, S72

ARRIVE trial, S156

ASCEND trial, S66, S156, S157

Asian Americans, S22, S25–S26, S119, S120

aspart, S27, S126, S138, S201

aspirin therapy, S155, S156, S239

ASPREE trial, S156

atenolol, S190

atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), S144–S174

atorvastatin, S152

atypical antipsychotics, S26, S74

autoimmune diseases, S53, S215

automated insulin delivery (AID) systems, S5, S98, S104–S105, S126, S213

autonomic neuropathy, S70

autonomic neuropathy, diabetic, S188

balloons, implanted gastric, S119

bariatric surgery. see metabolic surgery.

basal insulin, S99, S126, S139

bedtime dosing, of antihypertensives, S150

behavior changes, S5, S10, S60–S82

  • diabetes self-management education and support, S60–S62

  • medical nutrition therapy, S62–S67

  • physical activity, S67–S70

  • in pregnancy, S236

  • psychosocial issues, S70–S75

  • smoking cessation, S70

  • for weight loss, S114–S115

bempedoic acid, S153–S154

beta-cell replacement therapy, S130–S131

biguanides, S137

bladder dysfunction, S189

Blood Glucose Awareness Training, S5, S72, S92

blood glucose monitoring (BGM), S5, S83, S84, S85, S89, S90, S92, S129, S221

  • bedside, in hospitalized patients, S246

  • correlation with A1C, S84

  • devices for, S98–S100

  • in hypoglycemia, S90–S92

  • in intensive insulin regimens, S99

  • during pregnancy, S235

blood pressure control. see also hypertension., S145–S150, S181

body mass index (BMI), S5, S18, S22, S25–S26, S114, S115, S116, S119, S120, S219, S221, S222, S237, S239

bone mineral density (BMD), S55

bromocriptine, S137

calcium channel blockers, S149, S150

canagliflozin, S133, S137, S162, S164, S167, S180, S181, S616

cancer, risk in diabetes, S53

CANVAS study, S162, S163, S164, S180, S181

capsaicin, topical, S190

carbamazepine, S190

carbohydrate intake, S4, S5, S65–S66

cardiac autonomic neuropathy, diabetic, S188–S189

cardiac function testing, S223

cardiovascular disease, S6, S144–S174

  • A1C and outcomes of, S88–S89

  • antiplatelet agents, S155–S157

  • cardiac testing, S159

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S145–S150

  • lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, S159–S169

  • lipid management, S151–S155

  • prevention of, in prediabetes, S42–S43, S223

  • screening, S157–S159

cardiovascular risk

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S216

  • risk calculator, S145

care delivery systems, S9–S11

  • access to care and quality improvement, S10–S11

  • behaviors and well-being, S10

  • care teams, S10

  • chronic care model, S9

  • medication cost considerations, S10

  • six core elements, S9

  • system-level improvement strategies, S9–S10

care teams, S10

CARMELINA trial, S159, S167

CAROLINA trial, S159, S161

celiac disease, S53

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S215–S216

Charcot neuropathy, S69, S70, S190, S191

childcare, S212, S255

children and adolescents, S7, S208–S231

  • A1C in, S19–S20, S84–S85

  • asymptomatic, risk-based screening in, S23

  • cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in, S27

  • diabetes care in childcare settings, S212, S255

  • diabetes care in school setting, S98, S212, S254–S255

  • insulin pumps in, S104

  • maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S17, S28–S29

  • monogenic diabetes syndromes, S17, S28–S30

  • neonatal diabetes, S17, S28–S29

  • physical activity in, S68, S69

  • recommendations for screening and treatment, S209–S210

  • screening for prediabetes and type 2, S26

  • transition from pediatric to adult care, S224

  • type 1 diabetes in, S211–S218

  • type 2 diabetes in, S218–S224

China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Outcome Study, S42–S43

CHIPS trial, S148

cholesterol lowering, S151

chronic care model, S9

chronic kidney disease, diabetic, S6–S7, S175–S184

  • acute kidney injury, S178

  • assessing albuminuria and GFR, S176–S177

  • diagnosis, S177

  • interventions for, S179–S182

  • referral to nephrologist, S182

  • risk of progression, S177

  • screening recommendations, S175

  • staging, S177–S178

  • surveillance, S178–S179

  • treatment recommendations, S175–S176

classification, S4, S17–S18

clonidine, S190

clopidogrel, S155, S157

closed-loop systems

  • do-it-yourself, S105

  • hybrid, S126

coaching, online, S105

cognitive capacity/impairment, S5, S53–S54, S74–S75

colesevelam, S137

collaborative care, S46–S48

collagen vascular diseases, S53

community health workers, S4

community screening, S26

community support, S13

comorbidities, assessment of, S46–S59

  • autoimmune diseases, S53

  • cancer, S53

  • cognitive impairment/dementia, S53–S54

  • fractures, S55

  • hepatitis C infection, S54–S55

  • low testosterone in men, S55–S56

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S54, S55, S56

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S56

  • pancreatitis, S55

  • periodontal disease, S56

  • sensory impairment, S55

COMPASS trial, S157

CONCEPTT study, S235–S236

connected insulin pens, S5, S102–S103

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S5, S85–S87

  • ambulatory glucose profile in, S85, S86, S87

  • devices for, S100–S102

  • in hospitalized patients, S246

  • in hypoglycemia, S92

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S214

  • in pregnancy, S235–S236

  • recommendations, S85, S100–S101

  • standardized metrics for, S85

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), S98, S125–S126

coronary artery disease, S69, S149, S150, S157, S158

correctional institutions, diabetes care in, S255

cost considerations, S4, S10, S135, S137, S254–S255

COVID-19 vaccines, S51–S52

CREDENCE study, S162, S163, S164, S167, S180, S181

cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, S17, S27

DAMOCLES study, S192

DAPA-CKD study, S6, S164, S180

DAPA-HF study, S6, S164

dapagliflozin, S133, S137, S162, S164, S166, S167, S180, S181

DASH diet, S148, S151

DECLARE-TIMI 58 study, S164

degludec, S126, S138, S139, S140, S201

delay, of type 2 diabetes, S4–S5, S39–S45

  • lifestyle behavior change, S40–S42

  • patient-centered care goals, S43

  • pharmacologic interventions, S42

  • prevention of vascular disease and mortality, S42–S43

dementia, in diabetics, S53–S54

  • hyperglycemia and, S54

  • hypoglycemia and, S54

  • nutrition and, S54

  • statins and, S54

dental practices, screening in, S26

depression, S72–S73

detemir, S128, S138, S139, S201

devices. see technology.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S19, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S105, S125, S126, S214, S218

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC), S55, S88, S89, S91, S179

diabetes distress, S71–S72

diabetes medical management plan (DMMP), for students, S98

Diabetes Prevention Impact Tool Kit, S41

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), S23, S40

  • delivery and dissemination of, S41–S42

Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program (DPRP), S42

diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES), S5, S10, S13, S60–S62, S63, S71, S73, S136, S211

diabetes technology. see technology, diabetes.

diabetic ketoacidosis, S17–S18, S249–S250

diabetic kidney disease. see chronic kidney disease.

Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS), S187

diagnosis, S4, S18–S26

  • confirmation of, S20

  • of diabetic kidney disease, S177

  • of diabetic neuropathy, S188–S189

  • diagnostic tests, S18–S20

  • type 1 diabetes, S20–S22

  • of type 1 vs type 2 in pediatric patients, S219

  • type 2 diabetes, S23–S25

diagnostic tests, S18–S20

  • A1C, S19–S20

  • age, S19–S20

  • confirmation of, S20

  • criteria for, S19

  • ethnicity, S20

  • fasting and 2-hr plasma glucose, S19

  • hemoglobinopathies, S20

  • prediabetes, S22–S23

  • race, S20


  • for hypertension control, S148

  • for weight loss, S114–S115

Dietary Reference Intakes, S236

digital health technology, S105

dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, S28, S116, S133, S134, S135, S137, S159, S161, S166, S190, S200, S247

disordered eating behavior, S73–S74

do-it-yourself systems, S105

domperidone, S190

Dose Adjusted for Normal Eating (DAFNE), S5, S92

DRCR Retina Network, S187

driving, and diabetes, S255

droxidopa, S190

dulaglutide, S133, S137, S160, S165, S166, S167, S181

duloxetine, S189

dyslipidemia, S209, S210, S216–S217, S223

e-cigarettes, S70, S217

eating disorders, S73–S74

eating patterns, S74–S75

education, on device use, S98

electrical stimulation, gastric, S190

ELIXA trial, S160–S161

EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, S133, S161, S162, S163, S167, S180

empagliflozin, S133, S137, S161, S164, S166, S167, S168, S180, S181

EMPEROR-Reduced trial, S133, S162, S163, S164, S167

employment, diabetes and, S255

enalapril, S190

end-of-life care, S204

enteral/parenteral feedings, S248–S249

erectile dysfunction, S56, S190

ertugliflozin, S133, S137, S162, S164–S165, S247

Ertugliflozin Efficacy and Safety Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (VERTIS CV), S6, S164–S165

erythromycin, S190

erythropoietin therapy, A1C and, S19

estimated average glucose (eAG), S84

ETDRS study, S187


  • effect on A1C, S20, S84–S85

  • in screening asymptomatic adults, S25–S26

  • in screening asymptomatic children/adolescents, S23

evidence-grading system, S2

evolocumab, S6, S153

EXAMINE trial, S159, S167

exenatide, S133, S137, S160, S166, S167, S221

exercise. see physical activity.

exocrine pancreas diseases, S17, S30

EXSCEL trial, S133, S160–S161, S166

eye exam, comprehensive, S186, S187, S218, S223

ezetimibe, S6, S151, S152, S153, S155, S156

family history, in screening children/adolescents, S23

fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, S18, S19, S20, S23, S26, S136

fats, dietary, S66–S67

FDA standards, for glucose meters, S99

fenofibrate, S154

fibrate + statin therapy, S154

FLOW trial, S181

fluvastatin, S152

food insecurity, S11–S12

foot care, S7, S190–S192

footwear, S191

FOURIER trial, S153

fractures, S55

gastrectomy, vertical sleeve, S119–S120

gastric aspiration therapy, S119

gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y gastric, S119–S120

gastric electrical stimulation, S190

gastrointestinal neuropathies, S189

gastroparesis, S189, S190

gemfibrozil, S154

genetic testing, S4, S28, S29

genitourinary disturbances, S189

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S4, S17, S22, S23, S25, S30–S33, S41, S42, S232, S235, S236, S237, S239–S240

  • definition, S30–S31

  • initial testing, S239

  • insulin, S237

  • management of, S236–S237

  • medical nutrition therapy, S236–S237

  • metformin, S237

  • one-step strategy, S32

  • physical activity, S237

  • postpartum care, S239–S240

  • recommendations, S30

  • screening and diagnosis, S31–S33

  • sulfonylureas, S237

  • two-step strategy, S32–S33

glargine, S126, S128, S138, S139, S140, S201

glimepiride, S133, S137, S159, S161, S200

glipizide, S133, S137, S200

glomerular filtration rate, S176

glucagon, S90, S91–S92

glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), S118, S130, S135, S136, S137, S139–S140, S168, S179, S180, S181, S186, S190

glucocorticoid therapy, S26, S249

glucose, for hypoglycemia, S90, S91

glucose meters

  • counterfeit strips, S99

  • inaccuracy, S100

  • interfering substances, S100

  • oxygen, S100

  • standards, S99

  • temperature, S100

glucose monitoring. see blood glucose monitoring.

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, A1C and, S19, S20

glucose-lowering therapy, S116, S127, S131

  • in chronic kidney disease, S179–S182

  • in hospitalized patients, S246–S247

glulisine, S138, S201

glyburide, S134, S137, S200, S236, S237

glycemic control

  • assessment of, S83–S90

  • physical activity and, S69

glycemic goals. see also glycemic targets., S87–S90

glycemic targets, S5, S83–S96

  • A1c and BGM correlation, S84

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes, S87

  • A1c differences in ethnic groups and children, S84–S85

  • A1c limitations, S84

  • continuous glucose monitoring, S85–S87

  • in diabetic kidney disease, S179

  • goals, S87–S90

  • in hospitalized patients, S245–S246

  • hypoglycemia, S90–S92

  • individualization of, S89

  • intercurrent illness, S92

  • in older adults, S197–S198

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S213–S215

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S219–S220

  • recommendations, S83

  • setting and modifying A1C goals, S89–S90

glycemic treatment, S6, S125–S143

guanfacine, S190

health literacy, S12–S13

health numeracy, S4, S12–S13

hearing impairment, S55

heart failure, S144–S145, S166

hemodialysis, A1C and, S20

hemoglobinopathies, A1C on, S20

hepatitis B vaccines, S51

hepatitis C infection, S54–S55

hepatitis, autoimmune, S53

hip fractures, S55

homelessness, S12

hospital care, S7, S92, S106, S244–S253

  • bedside glucose monitoring, S246

  • care delivery standards, S245–S246

  • glucose-lowering treatment in, S246–S247

  • glycemic targets in, S245–S246

  • hypoglycemia, S247–S248

  • medical nutrition therapy in, S248

  • medication reconciliation, S250

  • perioperative care, S249

  • preventing admissions and readmissions, S250–S251

  • self-management in, S248

  • standards for special situations, S248–S250

  • structured discharge communication, S250

  • transition to ambulatory setting, S250

HOT trial, S146, S147

housing insecurity, S12

HPS2-THRIVE trial, S155

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), S20, S22, S26

human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, S52

human regular insulin, S138, S139, S249, S250

hybrid closed-loop systems, S126

Hydrogel, oral, S119

hyperbaric oxygen therapy, S192

hyperglycemia, S54

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study, S31

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S249–S250

hypertension, S145–S150

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S216

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210, S223

hypertriglyceridemia, S154

hypoglycemia, S5, S54, S90–S92

  • classification, S91

  • in hospitalized patients, S247–S248

  • in older adults, S196–S197

  • prevention, S92

  • recommendations, S901

  • treatment, S91–S92

hypoglycemia risk, S51

hypoglycemia, postbariatric, S120–S121

hypogonadism, S55

hypokalemia, S150

icosapent ethyl, S154

idiopathic type 1 diabetes, S21

Illness, intercurrent, glycemic targets in, S92

immune checkpoint inhibitors, S4

immune-mediated diabetes, S21

impaired fasting glucose (IFG), S18, S22, S23

impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), S18, S19, S22, S23, S27, S32

incretin-based therapies, S200

Indian Diabetes Prevention Program (IDPP-1), S42

infections, diabetic foot, S191–S192

influenza, S5

influenza vaccines, S5, S48, S50–S54

inhaled insulin, S103, S126, S127, S138, S139

injection techniques, S127

insulin analogs, in type 1 diabetics, S127–S130

insulin delivery, S102–S106

  • automated systems, S104–105

  • do-it-yourself closed-loop systems, S105

  • injection techniques, S127

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S213–S215

  • pens and syringes, S5, S102–103

  • pumps, S103–S104

insulin pump therapy, S99, S214

insulin resistance, S17, S18, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S68, S139, S224, S234, S235, S236, S237, S238, S239

insulin secretagogues, S200

insulin therapy, S28

  • access and affordability, S254–S255

  • in adults with type 1 diabetes, S125–S130

  • in adults with type 2 diabetes, S131–S141, S140–S141

  • basal, S99, S126, S139

  • combination injectable, S139–S140

  • concentrated insulins, S139

  • in hospitalized patients, S246

  • inhaled insulin, S103, S126, S127, S138, S139

  • monitoring for intensive regimens, S99

  • in older adults, S201

  • prandial, S126–S127, S139

insulin:carbohydrate ratio (ICR), S128–S129

integrated CGM devices, S101–S102

intensification, of therapy, S136

intermittently scanned CGM devices, S101–S102

International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG), S31, S32

International Diabetes Closed Loop (iDCL) trial, S126

islet autotransplantation, S30, S55, S130–S131

isradipine, S190

juvenile-onset diabetes. see immune-mediated diabetes.

KDIGO study, S177

kidney disease. see chronic kidney disease

Kumamoto study, S88

language barriers, S12

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), S18

LEADER trial, S160–S161, S165, S180

lifestyle behavior changes

  • for diabetes prevention, S40–S42

  • for hypertension, S148

  • for lipid management, S151

  • in older adults, S198–S199

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S219

  • in pregnancy, S236

  • to reduce ASCVD risk factors, S151

linagliptin, S133, S137, S159, S161, S167

lipase inhibitors, S117

lipid management, S151–S155

lipid profiles, S151

liraglutide, S42, S54, S116, S118, S133, S137, S140, S160, S165, S166, S167, S180, S181, S221, S222

lispro, S138, S139, S201

lixisenatide, S133, S137, S138, S140, S160, S166, S167

long-acting insulin analog, in type 1 diabetics, S126, S128–S130, S135, S138, S139, S201, S202, S212, S214, S249

Look AHEAD trial, S116

loss of protective sensation, S188, S191

lovastatin, S152

macular edema, diabetic, S186

maternal history, in screening children/adolescents, S23

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S18, S28–S29, S208, S219

meal planning, S74–S75

medical devices, for weight loss, S119

medical evaluation, S5, S46–S59

  • autoimmune diseases, S53

  • cancer, S53

  • cognitive impairment/dementia, S53–S54

  • comprehensive, S48–S51

  • fractures, S55

  • hepatitis C infection, S54–S55

  • immunizations, S48, S50–S54

  • low testosterone in men, S55–S56

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S54, S55, S56

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S56

  • pancreatitis, S55

  • periodontal disease, S56

  • recommendations, S48

medical nutrition therapy, S62–S67

  • alcohol, S67

  • carbohydrates, S65–S66

  • eating patterns and meal planning, S64–S65

  • fats, S66–S67

  • goals of, S64

  • in hospitalized patients, S248

  • micronutrients and supplements, S67

  • protein, S66

  • recommendations, S63

  • sodium, S67

  • weight management, S64


  • considerations in pregnancy, S239–S240

  • cost considerations, S4, S10

  • in diabetes screening, S26

  • glucose-lowering, impact on weight, S116

  • for weight loss, S116–S119

Mediterranean diet, S151

meglitinides, S51, S137

mental health referrals, S72, S73

mental illness, serious, S74

metabolic surgery, S119–S121, S221–S222

metformin, S5, S6, S7, S28, S30, S42, S67, S88, S89, S116, S130, S131, S132, S133, S135, S137, S139, S140, S158, S159, S160, S162, S165, S166, S168, S179, S180, S196, S200, S201, S210, S220, S221, S223, S236, S237, S238, S239, S249

metoclopramide, S190

metoprolol, S190

micronutrients, S67

microvascular complications, S69–S70

  • A1C and, S87–S88

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S217–S218

midodrine, S190

miglitol, S137

migrant farmworkers, S12

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy, S150–S151, S181

monogenic diabetes syndromes, S17, S28–S30

multiple daily injections (MDI), S99

myasthenia gravis, S53

naltrexone/bupropion ER, S116, S117

nateglinide, S42, S137

National Diabetes Data Group, S33

National Diabetes Prevention Program, S41

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), S9, S19, S55, S219

neonatal diabetes, S17, S28

nephrologist, referral to, S182


  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S217

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210, S222

neurocognitive function, S196

neuropathy, S7, S70, S188–S190

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S218

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210, S223

new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), S27

niacin + statin therapy, S154–S155

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), S5, S54, S55, S56

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210, S223

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), S5, S54

noninsulin treatments

  • in type 1 diabetes, S127, S130

noninsulin-dependent diabetes. see type 2 diabetes.

nonnutritive sweeteners, S67

NPH insulin, S126, S127, S128–S130, S133, S135, S138, S139, S140, S201, S247, S249

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

  • A1C and, S20

nursing homes, S203–S204

nutrition therapy

  • and dementia, S54

  • for diabetes prevention, S40–S41

  • with diabetic kidney disease, S179

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S211

obesity, S5, S113–S124

  • assessment, S113–S114

  • diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, S114–S119

  • medical devices for weight loss, S119

  • metabolic surgery, S119–S121

  • pharmacotherapy, S116–S119

  • screening asymptomatic children/adolescents, S23

obstructive sleep apnea, S56

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210


older adults, S7, S195–S207

  • end-of-life care, S204

  • hypoglycemia, S196–S197

  • lifestyle management, S198–S199

  • neurocognitive function, S196

  • pharmacologic therapy, S199–S203

  • in skilled nursing facilities and nursing homes, S203–S204

  • treatment goals, S197–S198

  • with type 1 diabetes, S203

one-step strategy, for GDM, S32

opioid antagonist/antidepressant combination, S117

ophthalmologist, referral to, S186, S218, S224, S234

oral agents, BGM for patients using, S99

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), S18, S19, S23, S26, S27, S28, S29, S31, S32, S33, S236

organ transplantation, posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S17, S27–S28

orlistat, S116, S117

orthostatic hypotension, S190

overweight, screening asymptomatic children/adolescents, S23

oxygen, glucose monitors and, S100

P2Y12 receptor antagonists, S155, S157

palliative care, S204

pancreas transplantation, S130–S131

pancreatectomy, S30

pancreatic diabetes, S17, S30

pancreatitis, S55

pancreoprivic diabetes, S30

patient-centered care goals, S43

patient-centered collaborative care, S46–S48

pens, insulin, S102–S103

periodontal disease, S26, S56

perioperative care, S249

peripheral arterial disease, S191

peripheral neuropathy, S70

peripheral neuropathy, diabetic, S188

pernicious anemia, S53

pharmacologic approaches. see also specific medications, medication classes., S6, S125–S143

  • for adults with type 1 diabetes, S125–S130

  • for adults with type 2 diabetes, S131–S141

  • for hypertension, S149–S151

  • in older adults, S199–S203

  • for pediatric type 2 diabetes, S220–S221

  • in prediabetes, S42

  • for weight loss, S116–S119

phentermine, S116, S117

phentermine/topiramate ER, S116, S117

phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, S190

photocoagulation surgery, S187

physical activity, S41, S67–S70

  • for diabetes prevention, S41, S114–S115

  • for diabetes treatment, S114–S115

  • frequency and type, S67–S68

  • glycemic control and, S68

  • with microvascular complications, S68–S70

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S211

  • pre-exercise evaluation, S68

pioglitazone, S55, S133, S137, S154

PIONEER-6 trial, S160–S161, S165

pitavastatin, S152

Plenity, S119

pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines, S51, S52

polycystic ovarian syndrome, S210

population health, S4, S8–S16

  • care delivery systems, S9–S11

  • recommendations, S8

  • social context, S11–S13

postbariatric hypoglycemia, S120–S121

postpancreatitis diabetes mellitus (PPDM), S30

postpartum care, in diabetic women, S239–S240

postpartum state, A1C in, S20

posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S17, S27–S28

pramlintide, S127, S130, S137, S190

prandial insulin, S126–S127, S139

pravastatin, S152

pre-eclampsia, in pregnant women with diabetes, S239


  • criteria defining, S23

  • diagnosis, S23

  • prevention of vascular disease and mortality, S42–S43

  • screening, S4, S22–S23

pregabalin, S116, S189

pregnancy, S7, S232–S243

  • A1C and, S20, S235

  • continuous glucose monitoring in, S235–S236

  • diabetes in, S232

  • drug considerations in, S238–S239

  • eye exams during, S186

  • gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S4, S17, S22, S23, S25, S30–S33, S41, S42, S232, S235, S236, S237, S239–S240

  • glucose monitoring in, S235

  • glycemic targets in, S234–S236

  • insulin in, S237

  • metformin in, S237

  • pharmacologic therapy, S237

  • physical activity in, S237

  • postpartum care, S239–S240

  • pre-existing type 1 and 2 diabetes in, 240, S237–S238

  • preconception counseling, S233–S234

  • preeclampsia and aspirin, S238

  • real-time CGM device use in, S102

  • retinopathy during, S187

  • sulfonylureas, S237

prevention, type 2 diabetes, S4–S5, S39–S45

  • lifestyle behavior change, S40–S42

  • patient-centered care goals, S43

  • pharmacologic interventions, S42

  • recommendations, S39, S40, S42, S43

  • of vascular disease and mortality, S42–S43

proliferative diabetic retinopathy, S186

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, S151, S153, S155

protease inhibitors, A1C and, S20

protein intake, S66

psychosocial issues, S70–S75

  • anxiety disorders, S71

  • cognitive capacity/impairment, S74–S75

  • depression, S71–S72

  • diabetes distress, S70–S71

  • disordered eating behavior, S73–S74

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S212–S213

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S224

  • referral to mental health specialist, S72, S73

  • serious mental illness, S74

pumps, insulin, S99, S103–S104

quality improvement, S10–S11


  • effect on A1C, S20

  • in screening asymptomatic children/adolescents, S23

rapid-acting insulin analog, S103, S105, S125, S127–S130, S138, S139, S201, S212, S235, S248, S249, S250

real-time CGM devices, S101, S213, S214

REDUCE-IT trial, S154

referrals, S5

  • to behavioral health provider, S196

  • for comprehensive eye exam, S186, S218, S224, S234

  • for DSME, S196

  • to gastroenterologist, S223

  • to nephrologist, S182, S223

  • to neurologist, S188

  • to pediatric sleep specialist, S223

  • to registered dietitian, S233, S235, S250

reimbursement, for DSMES, S62

repaglinide, S137

retinopathy, diabetic, S6, S7, S25, S51, S68, S69, S70, S87, S104, S147, S177, S181 S185–S188, S190, S209, S210, S215, S218, S223, S233, S234, S238

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S218

  • in pediatric type 2 diabetes, S210, S223

REWIND trial, S160–S161, S165

risk calculator, for ASCVD, S145

risk management

  • cardiovascular disease, S6, S144–S174

  • chronic kidney disease, S6–S7, S175–S184

risk, determination of, S24

rivaroxaban, S155, S157

rosiglitazone, S133, S137

rotuvastatin, S152

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, S119–S120

SAVOR-TIMI trial, S159, S167

saxagliptin, S133, S137, S159, S167, S247

schizophrenia, S74


  • device use in, S98

  • diabetes care in, S255

  • pediatric type 1 diabetes and, S212


  • for cardiovascular disease, S157–S158

  • in children/adolescents, S26

  • community, S26

  • in dental practices, S26

  • for gestational diabetes mellitus, S30–S33

  • HIV, S26

  • medications, S26

  • for neuropathy, S188

  • for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, S22–S26

  • testing interval, S26

  • for type 1 diabetes, S20–S22

seasonal farmworkers, S12

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). see blood glucose monitoring (BGM)

semaglutide, S5–S6, S54, S55, S116, S118, S133, S137, S160, S161, S165, S167, S180, S181, S200

sensor-augmented pumps, S104–S105

sensory impairment, S55

setmelanotide, S116

sexual dysfunction, S189

sickle cell disease, A1C and, S20

simvastatin, S152

sitagliptin, S133, S137, S159, S167

skilled nursing facilities, S203–S204

smart pens. see connected insulin pens

smoking cessation, S70, S218

social capital, S13

social context, S11–S13

social determinants of health (SDOH), S9, S11–S13

sodium intake, S67

sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, S6, S7, S88, S89, S130, S133, S135, S137, S140, S145, S161, S162, S163, S165, S166, S167, S168, S178, S179, S180, S181, S197, S200, S247, S249

SOLOIST-WHF trial, S167

sotagliflozin, S167

SPRINT trial, S146, S147


  • of diabetic kidney disease, S177–S178

  • of type 1 diabetes, S18

statin treatment, S151–S155

statins, S54

sulfonylureas, S12, S28, S29, S85, S133, S137, S140, S200, S237

supplements, S67

surveillance, of chronic kidney disease, S178–S179

SUSTAIN-6 trial, A160–S161, S180

sweeteners, nonnutritive, S67

sympathomimetic amine anorectic/antiepileptic combination, S117

sympathomimetic amine anorectics, S117

syringes, insulin, S102–S103

tapentadol, S189–S190

technology, diabetes, S5, S97–S112

  • blood glucose monitoring, S98–S100

  • continuous glucose monitoring devices, S100–S102

  • general device principles, S97–S98

  • insulin delivery, S102–S106

TECOS trial, S159, S167

TEDDY study, S22

telemedicine, S10

temperature, of glucose monitor, S100

testing interval, S26

testosterone, low, in men, S55–S56

tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (TDAP) vaccine, S52

thiazide-like diuretics, S26, S150, S182

thiazolidinediones, S28, S42, S55, S116, S133, S137, S166, S200

thyroid disease, autoimmune, S53

  • in pediatric type 1 diabetes, S209, S215

tobacco, S70

training, on device use, S98

transfusion, A1C and, S20


  • from hospital to ambulatory setting, S250

  • from pediatric to adult care, S224


  • islet, S91, S130–S131

  • organ, post-transplant diabetes mellitus after, S17, S27, S28

  • pancreas, S130–S131

  • simultaneous renal, S130, S131, S165, S167, S177, S180

tricyclic antidepressants, S190

TWILIGHT trial, S157

two-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) test, S18, S19

two-step strategy, for GDM, S32–S33

type 1 diabetes, S4

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes in, S88

  • beta-cell replacement therapy, S130–S131

  • in children/adolescents, S211–S218

  • classification, S17–S18

  • diagnosis, S4, S20–S22

  • examples of subcutaneous insulin regimens, S128–S130

  • idiopathic, 21

  • immune-mediated, 21

  • insulin therapy in hospitalized patients, S247

  • noninsulin treatments, S127, S130

  • in older adults, S203

  • pharmacologic treatment in adults, S125–S130

  • pregnancy in women with preexisting, S239

  • retinopathy in, S186

  • screening, S4, S21–S22

  • staging, S18

  • surgical treatment, S130–S131

type 2 diabetes, S4

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease outcomes in, S88–S89

  • in children/adolescents, S218–S224

  • classification, S4, S17–S18

  • combination therapy, S132, S135

  • drug-specific and patient factors to consider, S133

  • initial therapy, S132

  • insulin pump use in, S105

  • obesity and weight management, S5, S113–S124

  • pharmacologic treatment in adults, S131–S141

  • pregnancy in women with preexisting, S238

  • prevention or delay, S4–S5, S39–S45

  • retinopathy in, S186–S187

  • risk test for, S24

  • screening in asymptomatic adults, S4, S25–S26

  • screening in children/adolescents, S4, S26

type 3c diabetes, S30

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S87, S88, S89, S90, S158

ulcers, foot, S190, S191, S192

ultra-rapid-acting insulin analogs, S127–S130, S249

vagus nerve stimulator, S119

vascular disease, prevention of, in prediabetes, S42–S43

venalfaxine, S190

VERIFY trial, S135

vertical sleeve gastrectomy, S119–S120

Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), S87–S88, S179

vildagliptin, S135

vitamin D supplementation, S5

VOYAGER-PAD trial, S157

weight loss surgery. see metabolic surgery.

weight loss/management

  • in diabetes prevention, S40, S41, S42, S43, S113–S124

  • in type 2 diabetes, S5, S64, S113–S124

well-being, S5, S10, S60–S82

whites, non-Hispanic, A1C differences in, S84–S84

zoster vaccine, S53

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