We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels at baseline and at 6-mo intervals in 47 normolipidemic patients with classic insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus treated either with a conventional (n = 21) or intensive (n = 26) diabetes-treatment program. Patients were followed for a mean of 3 yr (range 1–4 yr). Intensive diabetes treatment resulted in a significant improvement in glycemic control that caused sustained changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels that were not evident with the conventional- treatment program. These changes, which persisted for periods averaging 3 yr, can potentially reduce predicted risk for the development of premature atherosclerosis. Thus, long-term near normoglycemia may have a role in the prevention of atherosclerosis in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

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