Although preschool-aged children with diabetes might be at increased risk for both general and disease-specific psychological adjustment difficulties, this issue has not been investigated. We evaluated both general and diabetes-related adjustment of 20 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parenting Stress Index, Parents' Diabetes Opinion Survey, and the Preschool D abetes Behavior Checklist. The latter measure was constructed specifically for this study to measure the frequency of oppositional and avoidance behaviors of children regarding diabetes management tasks. Mothers reported that their children displayed significantly more i ternalizing behavior problems (anxiety, depression, withdrawal) and were a significantly greater source of parental stress compared with corresponding nondiabetic normative group samples. Also, certain maternal attitudes about diabetes and its treatment were correlated with the children's disease-specific behavior problems. The children's general psychological adjustment, however, was not predictive of these diabetes-specific behavior problems.

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