β-Cell function (plasma C-peptide) in 17 fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetic (FCPD) subjects (14 newly diagnosed) was not different at presentation from that in 14 matched insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. After insulin treatment and improvement in the patients′ nutritional and metabolic status, fasting and postglucose plasma C-peptide concentrations showed a significant increase (fasting 0.06 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.03 nM, peak 0.11 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.06 nM, mean ± SE; P < 0.01 for both). Thus, severely diminished β-cell function in FCPD is partially reversible after treatment. This could contribute to the clinical metabolic peculiarities of this group of patients.

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