To assess the importance of temperature, light, agitation, and regular withdrawal of insulin on the rates of appearance of three groups of insulin transformation products (ITPs) in vials of human and beef soluble insulin.

Research Design And Methods

Twelve insulin-treated patients (6 receiving human soluble insulin, 6 receiving beef soluble insulin) participated in the study. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure ITP in serial samples from vials stored in various laboratory environments or issued to patients. Vials in the laboratory were analyzed on nine occasions over 26 wk; those issued to patients were analyzed weekly.


Results were expressed as rates of change (% total protein/wk). Except for human insulin stored at 4°C, sampling did not accelerate transformation. Storage at higher temperatures caused more rapid transformation to all ITP groups, and human insulin was more susceptible than beef insulin. Exposure to light accelerated transformation mainly to group 3 ITP. Fibrillation occurred in beef but not human insulin carried in a shirt pocket. Results from patients' vials were consistent with reported storage conditions.


All three ITP groups form in human and beef soluble insulin. Their rate of production is a function of temperature and light exposure. Differences between the two insulins were probably due to differences in formulation. Patients should be discouraged from hoarding vials and storing insulin in direct sunlight. One or more ITPs could contribute to the residual immunogenicity of modern insulin preparations.

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