—To test the hypothesis that human insulin may have a low immunogenicity and that short-term exposure may not cause endogenous insulin antibody production.

Research Design and Methods

—Randomized double-blind prospective study. Serum samples collected for insulin binding antibodies and measured by a sensitive immunochemical assay. Subjects were seven healthy nondiabetic patients who had never received exogenous insulin. Each subject received 6 separate monthly injections of human insulin. On four occasions, both regular and NPH insulin were administered. On the other two occasions, either NPH or regular insulin was administered alone.


—Mean ± SE basal insulin antibody levels (1.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) increased to a maximal level of 4.5 ± 0.8 μg/L after four injections. Thereafter, antibody levels declined to an end-of-study value of 2.5 ± 0.3 μg/L. This represented a highly significant overall increase (P < 0.001). A control group of six insulin-dependent diabetic subjects treated with human insulin over the same period as the test subjects demonstrated no change in insulin antibody concentrations (2.8 ± 0.7–2.7 ± 0.6 μg/L).


—These results suggest that human insulin preparations, when administered subcutaneously, may be more immunogenic than previously considered. The antigenic response was rapid, because only four subcutaneous injections were sufficient to produce insulin antibody levels in nondiabetic patients similar to those observed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients receiving chronic insulin replacement therapy.

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