To describe a probable association between TNDM and subsequent permanent IDDM.
A longitudinal follow-up of a single case from birth to 12 yr of age was conducted analyzing sequential OGTTs, ICAs, AIAs, anti-GAD antibodies, and other organ-specific and nonspecific antibodies.
A small-for-gestational-age infant developed hyperglycemia at 20 h of age and required insulin therapy for the 1st 14 wk of life (TNDM). Transient hyperglycemia and ketonuria were noted again at age 2 yr 10 mo during an intercurrent illness, but OGTT was normal; and ICA, AIA, anti-GAD65 and anti-GAD67 antibodies, antithyroid microsomal, anti-gastric parietal cell, antiadrenal, antisteroidal, and antinuclear antibodies were negative 3 wk later. At age 9 yr, hyperglycemia returned and persisted in the setting of hypoinsulinemia; ICA, AIA, anti-GAD65 and anti-GAD67 antibodies, and other organ-specific and nonspecific antibodies were again negative. Insulin therapy was initiated and has been maintained over 3 yr of follow-up.
Our case is the fifth reported with permanent diabetes occurring after resolution of TNDM. The etiology of permanent diabetes in this setting is unknown but, unlike classical IDDM, appears unrelated to autoimmunity in our patient. The true frequency of this association remains unknown.