To examine the dietary preferences of and metabolic effects in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of a home-prepared high-monounsamrated fat (HM) diet compared with the recommended high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet.
Ten men with mild NIDDM prepared HM and high-CHO diets at home alternately and in random order for 2 weeks each with a minimum 1-week washout. Before and after each diet, 24-h urine glucose, fasting lipids, fructosamine, and 6-h profiles of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured. Dietary preferences were assessed by questionnaire.
In the HM diet, patients consumed 40% of energy intake as CHO and 38% as fat (21% monounsaturated) compared with 52 and 24%, respectively, in the high-CHO diet, with equal dietary fiber content. Body weight and total energy intake were similar in both. The HM diet resulted in significantly lower 24-h urinary glucose excretion, fasting triglyceride, and mean profile glucose levels. The fructosamine levels, the fasting total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the prandial triglyceride concentrations did not differ significantly as a result of the diets. The two diets did not differ in ratings for overall acceptance, taste, cost, ease of preparation, variety, or satiety.
Prepared at home, the HM diet was, in the short-term, metabolically better in some aspects than the currently recommended diet for NIDDM. It also provided a palatable alternative.