The interrelationship between diabetes and various vitamins and minerals is characterized by a high degree of reciprocity. Chronic uncontrolled hyperglycemia can cause significant alterations in the status of these nutrients, and conversely, some of these substances, especially those that have been characterized as micronutrients, can directly modulate glucose homeostasis (1). Differences in patient populations studied and methodological uncertainties account for the discrepancies in most reported studies. Certain subgroups of individuals with diabetes, such as elderly patients, vegans (who consume no animal products), and pregnant and lactating women, are at particular risk for deficiencies for such nutrients. Additionally, caloric restriction for obese patients and the effects of a high fiber diet and a host of drugs on the metabolism of vitamins and minerals are of concern (2,3).

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