To analyze the blood pressure patterns in normoalbuminuric IDDM patients with glomerular hyperfiltration.
A controlled cross-sectional study of 38 normotensive normoalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion rate <20 μg/min) IDDM patients (18 hyperfiltering [glomerular filtration rate >134 ml · min−1 · 1.73 m−2] and 20 normofiltering) and 20 normal individuals matched for age, sex, and BMI was performed. The 24-h ambulatory blood pressure was monitored using an auscultatory technique (Pressurometer IV, Del Mar Avionics), the glomerular filtration rate was measured by 51Cr-labeled EDTA method, extracellular volume by the distribution volume of 51Cr-labeled EDTA, and the 24-h urinary albumin excretion rate by radioimmunoassay.
Mean nocturnal diastolic blood pressure was higher in hyperfiltering IDDM patients (70.4 ± mmHg), when compared with the control group (65.1 ± 5.3 mmHg, P = 0.04). Diastolic blood pressure night:day ratio was higher in hyperfiltering IDDM patients (92.0 ± 8.6%), when compared with normofiltering IDDM patients (85.9 ± 4.8%) and control subjects (87.0 ± 6.8%, P = 0.02). In IDDM patients, the glomerular filtration rate significantly correlated with the diastolic blood pressure night:day ratio (r = 0.5, P = 0.002), extracellular volume (r = 0.04, P = 0.002), and HbA1 (r = 0.3, P = 0.03). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, factors associated with glomerular filtration rate were diastolic blood pressure night:day ratio, extracellular volume, and HbA1 (adjusted r2 = 0.27, P = 0.003).
Glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with higher nocturnal diastolic blood pressure and with a blunted nocturnal decrease in diastolic blood pressure levels in normotensive and normoalbuminuric IDDM patients.