To compare within-subject variability of plasma glucose measured 2 h after a glucose tolerance test (GTT) with that of plasma glucose measured 2 h after administration of a standardized test meal (diabetes screening product [DSP], Ceapro, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) and to determine the relationship between the two sets of plasma glucose measurements.
Plasma glucose and insulin responses of 36 overnight-fasted subjects (10 lean normal, 9 obese normal, 9 with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and 8 with mild diabetes) were studied on eight different mornings after they consumed 75 g oral glucose or 50 g carbohydrate from the DSP. Each test meal was repeated four times by each subject. Within-subject coefficients of variation (CVs) (CV = 100 × SD/mean) of plasma glucose concentrations 2 h after administration of the GTT and DSP were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analysis.
Mean plasma glucose 2 h after administration of the DSP (D) was linearly related to that 2 h after the GTT (G): G = 1.5 × D − 1.6 (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001). The CV of 2-h plasma glucose was significantly lower after administration of the DSP, 10.5 ± 1.0%, than after the GTT, 12.7 ± 1.18% (P = 0.025). The effect of test meal on CV differed in different groups of subjects (P = 0.018), with the largest difference found in IGT subjects, in whom the CV after DSP administration was 47% < after the GTT (P = 0.0005). The DSP was significantly more palatable and produced fewer adverse symptoms than the GTT.
Plasma glucose concentrations measured 2 h after DSP administration are closely related to those measured 2 h after the GTT but are more consistent than the 2-h post-GTT concentrations within the critical IGT range. This finding suggests that measurement of plasma glucose 2 h after administration of the DSP may allow more precise discrimination among normal glucose levels, IGT, and diabetes than measurement of plasma glucose 2 h after the GTT.