To determine if the combination of troglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activator) and sulfonylurea will provide efficacy not attainable by either medication alone.
There were 552 patients inadequately controlled on maximum doses of sulfonylurea who participated in a 52-week randomized active-controlled multicenter study. Patients were randomized to micronized glyburide 12 mg q.d. (G12); troglitazone monotherapy 200, 400, or 600 mg q.d. (T200, T400, T600); or combined troglitazone and glyburide q.d. (T200/G12, T400/G12, T600/G12). Efficacy measures included HbA1c, fasting serum glucose (FSG), insulin, and C-peptide. Effects on lipids and safety were also assessed.
Patients on T600/G12 had significantly lower mean (± SEM) FSG (9.3 ± 0.4 mmol/l; 167.4 ± 6.6 mg/dl) compared with control subjects (13.7 ± 0.4 mmol/l; 246.5 ± 6.8 mg/dl; P < 0.0001) and significantly lower mean HbA1c (7.79 ± 0.2 vs. 10.58 ± 0.18%, P < 0.0001). Significant dose-related decreases were also seen with T200/G12 and T400/G12. Among patients on T600/G12, 60% achieved HbA1c ≤8%, 42% achieved HbA1c ≤7%, and 40% achieved FSG ≤7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl). Fasting insulin and C-peptide decreased with all treatments. Overall, triglycerides and free fatty acids decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol increased. LDL cholesterol increased slightly, with no change in apolipoprotein B. Adverse events were similar across treatments. Hypoglycemia occurred in 3% of T600/G 12 patients compared with <1% on G12 or troglitazone monotherapy
Patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea can be effectively managed with a combination of troglitazone and sulfonylurea that is safe, well tolerated, and represents a new approach to achieving the glycemic targets recommended by the American Diabetes Association.