OBJECTIVE: Lispro is a new rapidly absorbed insulin analog. At present, there are no recommendations for the optimal injection time of lispro insulin in hyperglycemic patients. In contrast to normoglycemic patients with diabetes, we hypothesized that injection of lispro insulin 15-30 min before meal ingestion would improve postprandial glucose excursion in hyperglycemic diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 48 randomized overnight studies, 12 healthy adult type 1 diabetic patients received lispro insulin 0.15 U/kg admixed with human ultralente 0.2 U/kg (as background insulin) subcutaneously at minutes (-30, -15, 0, and +15) relative to the ingestion of an American Diabetes Association breakfast of 8.6 kcal/kg. Pre-breakfast hyperglycemia of 10.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/l was established before the study by continuous overnight infusion of intravenous insulin, which was stopped 30 min before lispro insulin injection. Glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 5 h after breakfast. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that postprandial glucose excursion was reduced when lispro insulin was administered 15 or 30 min before the meal compared with lispro insulin injected at the meal (P < 0.002). The postprandial glucose excursion (millimoles per liter per hour) was -6.4 +/- 3 for the -30-min group, -5.1 +/- 2.9 for the -15-min group, 3.4 +/- 4.1 for the 0-min group, and 5.7 +/- 4.4 for the +15-min group. Although injecting lispro insulin at 30 min before the meal resulted in a significant reduction in postprandial glycemia, it was accompanied by loss of glucose control at 4 h postmeal in two subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of lispro insulin in hyperglycemic patients requires timing of the insulin injection at least 15 min before the meal.

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