The objective of this review is to summarize the literature on diabetes and smoking related to epidemiological risks, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of different cessation approaches, and implications for clinical practice. Over 200 studies were reviewed, with special emphasis placed on publications within the past 10 years. Intervention studies that included patients with diabetes but did not report results separately by disease are included. Diabetes-specific studies are highlighted. There are consistent results from both cross-sectional and prospective studies showing enhanced risk for micro- and macrovascular disease, as well as premature mortality from the combination of smoking and diabetes. The general cessation literature is extensive, generally well-designed, and encouraging regarding the impact of cost-effective practical office-based interventions. In particular, system-based approaches that make smoking a routine part of office contacts and provide multiple prompts, advice, assistance, and follow-up support are effective. Although there is minimal information on the effectiveness of cessation interventions specifically for people with diabetes, there is no reason to assume that cessation intervention would be more or less effective in this population. There is a clear need to increase the frequency of smoking cessation advice and counseling for patients with diabetes given the strong and consistent data on smoking prevalence; combined risks of smoking and diabetes for morbidity, mortality, and several complications; and the proven efficacy and cost-effectiveness of cessation strategies.

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