Insulin resistance is a major component of type 2 diabetes; therefore, an insulin sensitizer agent like the thiazolidinedione compound troglitazone is considered a very promising drug. Troglitazone exerts an antihyperglycemic activity in a dose-dependent manner between 200 and 600 mg/day in type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet alone, sulfonylureas, or insulin. Additive antihyperglycemic effect may also be obtained by combining troglitazone and metformin. The antihyperglycemic effect of troglitazone as monotherapy is rather modest (reduction of HbA1c by 0.5-1.0%), but it appears to be somewhat greater when it is combined with other antidiabetic drugs. No double-blind studies have directly compared the activity of troglitazone with that of sulfonylureas or metformin. Troglitazone has been shown to exert additional beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and arterial blood pressure. It may be considered as a valuable alternative in insulin-resistant (obese and hyperinsulinemic) diabetic patients who appear to be the best responders to the drug. However, the efficacy of troglitazone is challenged by its safety profile, and the risk of hepatotoxicity still remains a major concern in clinical practice.

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