OBJECTIVE: To investigate and monitor the patterns in incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (per 100,000 per year) from 1990 to 1994 was determined in children < or =14 years of age from 100 centers in 50 countries. A total of 19,164 cases were diagnosed in study populations totaling 75.1 million children. The annual incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted incidence of type 1 diabetes varied from 0.1/100,000 per year in China and Venezuela to 36.8/100,000 per year in Sardinia and 36.5/100,000 per year in Finland. This represents a >350-fold variation in the incidence among the 100 populations worldwide. The global pattern of variation in incidence was evaluated by arbitrarily grouping the populations with a very low (<1/100,000 per year), a low (1-4.99/100,000 per year), an intermediate (5-9.99/100,000 per year), a high (10-19.99/100,000 per year), and a very high (> or =20/100,000 per year) incidence. Of the European populations, 18 of 39 had an intermediate incidence, and the remainder had a high or very high incidence. A very high incidence (> or =20/ 100,000 per year) was found in Sardinia, Finland, Sweden, Norway Portugal, the U.K., Canada, and New Zealand. The lowest incidence (<1/100,000 per year) was found in the populations from China and South America. In most populations, the incidence increased with age and was the highest among children 10-14 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: The range of global variation in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes is even larger than previously described. The earlier reported polar-equatorial gradient in the incidence does not seem to be as strong as previously assumed, but the variation seems to follow ethnic and racial distribution in the world population.
Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group.
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M Karvonen, M Viik-Kajander, E Moltchanova, I Libman, R LaPorte, J Tuomilehto; Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group.. Diabetes Care 1 October 2000; 23 (10): 1516–1526. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.10.1516
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