OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin resistance in nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 86 nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (72 men and 14 women, aged 40-83 years, BMI 20.1-26.6 kg/m2) were studied. BMI, HbA1c levels, and fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum lipids (RLP cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), and serum insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The subjects were divided into two groups according to the value of HOMA-IR. Values >2.5 were indicative of the insulin-resistant state, and values <2.5 were indicative of the insulin-sensitive state. RESULTS: The insulin-resistant group had significantly higher RLP cholesterol and triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels compared with the insulin-sensitive group. Univariate regression analysis showed that insulin resistance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.254, P = 0.019), HbA1c levels (r = 0.278, P = 0.011), RLP cholesterol levels (r = 0.315, P = 0.004), and triglyceride levels (r = 0.332, P = 0.002) and was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol levels (r = -0.301, P = 0.006) in our diabetic patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that insulin resistance was independently associated with serum triglyceride levels, which explained 13.5% of the variability of insulin resistance in our nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 1) nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance are characterized by high RLP cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and low HDL cholesterol levels; and 2) the level of serum triglycerides is an independent predictor of insulin resistance in these patients.

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