OBJECTIVE: To compare long-term glycemic control and safety of using insulin aspart (IAsp) with that of regular human insulin (HI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter randomized open-label 6-month study (882 subjects) with a 6-month extension period (714 subjects) that enrolled subjects with type 1 diabetes. Subjects administered IAsp immediately before meals or regular HI 30 min before meals; basal NPH insulin was taken as a single bedtime dose in the majority of subjects. Glycemic control was assessed with HbA1c values and 8-point blood glucose profiles at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: Mean postprandial blood glucose levels (mg/dl +/- SEM) were significantly lower for subjects in the IAsp group compared with subjects in the HI group after breakfast (156 +/- 3.4 vs. 185 +/- 4.7), lunch (137 +/- 3.1 vs. 162 +/- 4.1), and dinner (153 +/- 3.1 vs. 168 +/- 4.1), when assessed after 6 months of treatment. Mean HbA1c values (% +/- SEM) were slightly, but significantly, lower for the IAsp group (7.78% +/- 0.03) than for the regular HI group (7.93% +/- 0.05, P = 0.005) at 6 months. Similar postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c values were observed at 12 months. Adverse events and overall hypoglycemic episodes were similar for both treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial glycemic control was significantly better with IAsp compared with HI after 6 and 12 months of treatment. The improvement was not obtained at an increased risk of hypoglycemia. HbA1c was slightly, but significantly, lower for IAsp compared with HI at 6 and 12 months.

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