A technical review is a balanced review and analysis of the literature on a scientific or medical topic related to diabetes. The technical review provides a scientific rationale for a position statement and undergoes critical peer review before submission to the Professional Practice Committee for approval. In some cases, original research publications (e.g., Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Study), conference proceedings (e.g., Gestational Diabetes Conference), or other comprehensive review articles are used as the basis for a position statement instead of a technical review. Listed below are recent technical reviews.

Aspirin Therapy in Diabetes

Colwell JA: Aspirin therapy in diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:1767–1771, 1997

Diabetes and Exercise

Schneider SH, Ruderman NB: Exercise and NIDDM (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 13:785–789, 1990

Wasserman DH, Zinman B: Exercise in individuals with IDDM (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:924–937, 1994

Diabetes Self-Management Education

Funnell MM, Haas LB: National standards for diabetes self-management education programs (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:100–116, 1995

Clement S: Diabetes self-management education (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:1204–1214, 1995

Diabetic Nephropathy

DeFronzo RA: Diabetic nephropathy: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Diabetes Reviews 3:510– 564, 1995

Diabetic Retinopathy

Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL III, Klein R: Diabetic retinopathy (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:143–156, 1998

Economic Analysis of Diabetes Interventions

Klonoff DC, Schwartz DM: An economic analysis of interventions for diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:390–404, 2000

Foot Care

Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Sanders LJ, Janisse D, Pogach LM: Preventive foot care in people with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:2161–2177, 1998

Hyperglycemic Crises

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM: Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 24:131–153, 2001


Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin P: The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 25:134–147, 2002


Cryer PE, Fisher JN, Shamoon H: Hypoglycemia (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:734–755, 1994


Smith SA, Poland GA: Use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in people with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 23:95–108, 2000

Laboratory Analysis

Sacks DB, Bruns DE, Goldstein DE, Maclaren NK, McDonald JM, Parrott M: Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 25:750–786, 2002. Reprinted from Clinical Chemistry 48:436–472, 2002

Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Diabetes

Haffner SM: Management of dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 21:160–178, 1998

Nutrition Recommendations and Principles for People with Diabetes

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Purnell JS, Wheeler M: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 25:148–198, 2002


Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX: The prevention and treatment of obesity (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:1744–1766, 1997

Pancreas Transplantation for Patients With Diabetes

Robertson RP, Davis C, Larsen J, Stratta R, Sutherland DER: Pancreas and islet transplantation for patients with diabetes (Technical Review) Diabetes Care 23:112–116, 2000

Preconception Care of Women With Diabetes

Kitzmiller JL, Buchanan TA, Kjos S, Combs CA, Ratner RE: Preconception care of diabetes, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 19:514–541, 1996

Screening for Diabetes

Engelgau MM, Narayan KM, Herman WH: Screening for type 2 diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 23:1563–1580, 2000

Smoking and Diabetes

Haire-Joshu D, Glasgow RE, Tibbs TL: Smoking and diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 22:1887– 1898, 1999

Standards of Medical Care for Patients With Diabetes

Weir GC, Nathan DM, Singer DE: Standards of care for diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 17:1514– 1522, 1994

Tests of Glycemia in Diabetes

Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan D, Peterson CM: Tests of glycemia in diabetes (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 18:896–909, 1995

Translation of Diabetes Nutrition Recommendations for Health Care Institutions

Schafer RG, Bohannon B, Franz M, Freeman J, Holmes A, McLaughlin S, Haas LB, Kruger DF, Lorenz RA, McMahon MM: Translation of the diabetes nutrition recommendations for health care institutions (Technical Review). Diabetes Care 20:96–105, 1997