A technical review is a balanced review and analysis of the literature on a scientific or medical topic related to diabetes. The technical review provides a scientific rationale for a position statement and undergoes critical peer review before submission to the Professional Practice Committee for approval. In some cases, original research publications, conference proceedings, or other comprehensive review articles are used as the basis for a position statement instead of a technical review. Listed below are recent technical reviews.

Aspirin Therapy

Colwell JA: Aspirin therapy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 20:1767–1771, 1997

Dyslipidemia Management in Adults

Haffner SM: Management of dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 21:160–178, 1998

Economic Analysis of Diabetes Interventions

Klonoff DC, Schwartz DM: An economic analysis of interventions for diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:390–404, 2000


Schneider SH, Ruderman NB: Exercise and NIDDM. Diabetes Care 13:785–789, 1990

Wasserman DH, Zinman B: Exercise in individuals with IDDM. Diabetes Care 17:924–937, 1994

Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C: Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:2518–2539, 2004

Foot Care

Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Sanders LJ, Janisse D, Pogach LM: Preventive foot care in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 21:2161–2177, 1998


Clement S, Braithwaite SS, Magee MF, Ahmann A, Smith EP, Schafer RG, Hirsh IB: Management of diabetes and hyperglycemia in hospitals. Diabetes Care 27:553–591, 2004

Hyperglycemic Crises

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM: Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 24:131–153, 2001


Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin P: The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 25:134–147, 2002


Cryer PE, Fisher JN, Shamoon H: Hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care 17:734–755, 1994

Cryer PE, Davis SN, Shamoon H: Hypoglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 26:1902–1912, 2003


Smith SA, Poland GA: Use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:95–108, 2000

Laboratory Analysis

Sacks DB, Bruns DE, Goldstein DE, Maclaren NK, McDonald JM, Parrott M: Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 25:750–786, 2002 (Reprinted from Clin Chem 48:436–472, 2002)


DeFronzo RA: Diabetic nephropathy: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Diabetes Rev 3:510–564, 1995


Vinik AI, Maser RE, Mitchell BD, Freeman R: Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 26:1553–1579, 2003

Boulton AJ, Malik RA, Arezzo JC, Sosenko JM: Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care 27:1458–1486, 2004

Nutrition Recommendations and Principles

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Purnell JS, Wheeler M: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 25:148–198, 2002

Nutrition Recommendations for Health Care Institutions

Schafer RG, Bohannon B, Franz M, Freeman J, Holmes A, McLaughlin S, Haas LB, Kruger DF, Lorenz RA, McMahon MM: Translation of the diabetes nutrition recommendations for health care institutions. Diabetes Care 20:96–105, 1997


Maggio CA, Pi-Sunyer FX: The prevention and treatment of obesity. Diabetes Care 20:1744–1766, 1997

Pancreas Transplantation

Robertson RP, Davis C, Larsen J, Stratta R, Sutherland DER: Pancreas and islet transplantation for patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:112–116, 2000

Preconception Care of Women

Kitzmiller JL, Buchanan TA, Kjos S, Combs CA, Ratner RE: Preconception care of diabetes, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions. Diabetes Care 19:514–541, 1996


Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL III, Klein R: Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 21:143–156, 1998

Fong DS, Aiello LP, Ferris FL III, Klein R: Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 27:2540–2553, 2004

Screening for Type 2 Diabetes

Engelgau MM, Narayan KM, Herman WH: Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23:1563–1580, 2000

Self-Management Education

Funnell MM, Haas LB: National standards for diabetes self-management education programs. Diabetes Care 18:100–116, 1995

Clement S: Diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care 18:1204–1214, 1995


Haire-Joshu D, Glasgow RE, Tibbs TL: Smoking and diabetes. Diabetes Care 22:1887–1898, 1999

Standards of Medical Care

Weir GC, Nathan DM, Singer DE: Standards of care for diabetes. Diabetes Care 17:1514–1522, 1994

Tests of Glycemia

Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan D, Peterson CM: Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 18:896–909, 1995

Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan D, Peterson CM, Sacks DB: Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27:1761–1773, 2004