A1C. see also glycemic control

  • age in, S12

  • CGM and, S49

  • confirmation testing, S13

  • CVD and, S51–S52

  • diagnostic criteria, S13

  • ethnic, pediatric differences, S50

  • exercise benefits, S37

  • glycemic targets and, S52–S53

  • goals, S50–S52

  • hemoglobinopathies, S13

  • in HIV, S28–S29

  • limitations, S50

  • mean glucose and, S50, S51

  • medical nutrition therapy effects on, S34

  • microvascular complications and, S50–S51

  • prediabetes, S13–S14, S28

  • in pregnancy, S115–S116

  • race/ethnicity in, S12

  • red blood cell turnover, S13

  • resistance training, S37–S38

  • SMBG and, S49

  • testing, S12–S13, S49–S50

acarbose, S68, S71

ACCORD study, S28, S51, S52, S54, S76, S81, S90

ACE inhibitors, S76–S78, S88, S91, S92, S108

acylated human glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, S60

ADAG trial, S50

ADA Position Statement, S1

ADA Scientific Statement, S1

ADVANCE-BP trial, S76–S77

ADVANCE-ON study, S77

ADVANCE study, S51, S52

advocacy, S128–S129

Affordable Care Act, S8

α-glucosidase inhibitors, S68, S71

AIM-HIGH trial, S81

albiglutide, S69, S71

albuminuria, S88–S91, S109

alcohol, S35, S37

Alli (orlistat), S60

alogliptin, S59, S65, S68, S71, S84

amlodipine, S78

amylin mimetics, S65, S68, S71

angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), S76–S78, S88, S91, S92, S108

antihyperglycemics, S59, S84, S122

antihypertensive therapy, S78, S90–S91

antioxidants supplementation, S37

antiplatelets, S81–S83, S92

antipsychotics, S30

Antithrombotic Trialists (ATT), S82

anti-VEGF, S92–S93

anxiety disorders, S29

ARV-associated hyperglycemia, S28–S29

aspart, S72

ASPIRE trial, S49

aspirin, S81–S83, S92

aspirin resistance, S83

atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), S75. see also cardiovascular disease

atorvastatin, S80

autoimmune diseases, S26–S27, S107

autonomic neuropathy, S38, S93–S95

balance training, S37

bariatric surgery, S59–S61

BARI 2D trial, S94

Belviq (lorcaserin), S60

benazepril, S78

biguanides, S68, S71. see also metformin

bile acid sequestrants, S69, S71

bromocriptine, S69, S71

canagliflozin, S69, S71

cancer, S27

carbohydrates, carbohydrate counting, S36

cardiac autonomic neuropathy, S94

cardiovascular disease

  • A1C and, S51–S52

  • children and adolescents, S108–S109

  • CKD management and, S90–S91

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S75–S78

  • lipid management, S79–S81

  • prevention, S46

  • proteins, S35, S36

  • revisions summary, S5

cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs), S70–S71

celiac disease, S107–S108

children and adolescents

  • A1C, blood glucose goals, S107

  • A1C differences in, S50

  • autoimmune conditions, S107

  • celiac disease, S107–S108

  • comorbidities, S110

  • CVD risk management, S108–S109

  • DSME/DSMS, S7, S8, S33–S34, S46, S105

  • dyslipidemia, S108–S109

  • exercise, S37–S38

  • glycemic control, S106–S107

  • kidney disease (nephropathy), S109

  • neuropathy, S109–S110

  • pediatric to adult care transition, S111

  • psychosocial issues, S106

  • retinopathy, S109

  • revisions summary, S5

  • school, child care, S106

  • smoking, S109

  • thyroid disease, S107

  • type 1 diabetes, S54, S105–S110

  • type 2 diabetes, S18, S110

cholesterol management, S79–S81

chronic care model, S6–S8

chronic kidney disease, S36, S38, S78, S88–S91, S109

classification, S4, S11

cognitive impairment/dementia, S27–S28, S81, S100

colesevelam, S69, S71

community screening, S17


  • children and adolescents, S110

  • comprehensive medical evaluation, S25–S27

  • immunizations, S25–S26

  • initial management referrals, S27–S28

  • patient-centered approach, S25

  • protocol, S26–S30

  • revisions summary, S4

consensus reports, S1

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S49, S121

contraception, S117

Contrave (naltrexone/bupropion), S60

coronary heart disease, S83–S84

cystic fibrosis–related diabetes, S21–S22

dapagliflozin, S69, S71

DASH diet, S34

DASH study, S77

degludec, S72

dental practices, screening in, S17–S18

depression, S29–S30

detemir, S72

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S50–S51, S54, S64, S90, S107

diabetes distress, S29, S39–S40

Diabetes Prevention Program, S14, S44–S45

Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), S37, S45, S46

diabetes self-management education (DSME), S7, S8, S33–S34, S46, S105, S123

diabetes self-management support (DSMS), S33–S34, S46

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), S11, S16, S122, S124

diagnosis. see also specific types of diabetes

  • A1C, S12–S13

  • confirmation, S13

  • criteria, S13

  • FPG testing, S12, S13

  • 2-h PG testing, S12, S13

  • monogenic syndromes, S20–S21

  • psychosocial issues, S39–S40

  • revisions summary, S4

  • testing, S12–S14

dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitors, S59, S65, S68, S71, S73, S84, S90, S102, S122

disordered eating behaviors, S30

disparity reduction

  • access to care, S8

  • ethnic, cultural, sex differences, S8

  • food insecurity, S8–S9

  • homelessness, S9

  • language barriers, S9

  • recommendations, S8

  • revisions summary, S4

  • treatment tailoring, S8–S9

dopamine-2 agonists, S69, S71

dulaglutide, S69, S71

duloxetine, S94

dyslipidemia, S79–S81, S108–S109

e-cigarettes, S38–S39, S109

EDIC study, S51, S54, S90

empagliflozin, S69–S71, S84


end of life care, S103

energy balance, S35

enteral/parenteral feedings, S123, S124

eplerenone, S91

erectile dysfunction, S94, S95

estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), S88–S90

EXAMINE study, S84

exenatide, S69, S71

exercise, S37–S38, S45

ezetimibe, S81

fasting plasma glucose testing, S12, S13

fat (dietary), S35, S36

fatty liver disease, S28

fibrates, S81

finerenone, S91

flexibility training, S37

fluvastatin, S80

food insecurity, S8–S9

foot care, S5, S95–S96

fractures, S28

gastrointestinal neuropathies, S94

gastroparesis, S95

GCK-MODY, S20, S21

genitourinary disturbances, S94

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). see also pregnancy

  • classification, S11

  • definition, S14, S18

  • diagnosis, S18–S20

  • management, S116–S117

  • one-step strategy, S18–S19

  • pharmacology, S46

  • pharmacotherapy, S116–S118

  • prevalence, S115

  • recommendations, S19

  • two-step strategy, S19–S20

glargine, S72

glimepiride, S68, S71

glipizide, S8–S9, S68, S71

GLP-1 receptor agonists, S69, S71, S73, S84, S90, S102

glucagon, S54

glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), S65

glucocorticoids, S123–S124

glulisine, S72

glyburide, S68, S71

glycemic control. see also A1C

  • children and adolescents, S106–S107

  • in CKD management, S90

  • continuous glucose monitoring, S49, S121

  • control, assessment of, S48

  • CVD and, S51–S52

  • hospital care, S121

  • intercurrent illness and, S54–S55

  • mean glucose, S50, S51

  • neuropathy, S38, S93–S95

  • in older adults, S100

  • pregnancy, S115–S116

  • recommendations, S48, S52, S54

  • revisions summary, S5

  • self-monitoring of blood glucose, S48–S49

health promotion

  • care delivery systems, S6

  • chronic care model, S6–S8

  • patient-centered care, S6

  • recommendations, S6

  • revisions summary, S4

hearing impairment, S28

heart failure, S84

hemoglobinopathies, S13

hepatitis B vaccination, S26

herbal supplements, S35, S37

HIV, S28–S29

HNF1A-MODY, S20, S21

HNF4A-MODY, S20, S21

HNF1B-MODY, S20, S21

homelessness, S9

hospital care

  • acute care setting, transition from, S124–S125

  • admission considerations, S120–S121

  • antihyperglycemics, S59, S84, S122

  • care providers, S121

  • delivery standards, S120–S121

  • discharge communications, S125

  • DSME, S123

  • enteral/parenteral feedings, S123, S124

  • glucocorticoids, S123–S124

  • glycemic control, S121

  • hypoglycemia, S121–S123

  • medical nutrition therapy, S123

  • medication reconciliation, S125

  • perioperative care, S124

  • physician order entry, computerized, S121

  • quality assurance, S121

  • readmissions, prevention, S125

  • recommendations, S120

  • revisions summary, S5

HOT trial, S76, S77

human regular insulin, S72

hydrochlorothiazide, S78


  • antihyperglycemic therapy, S59

  • cognitive function and, S28

  • hospital care, S121

  • management, S53

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S124

hypertension/blood pressure control, S75–S78, S88, S90–S91, S108

hypertriglyceridemia, S81


  • characterization, S53–S54

  • classification, S54

  • cognitive function and, S28, S54

  • CVD and, S52

  • exercise, S38

  • glucose monitoring, bedside, S121

  • hospital care, S121–S123

  • nocturnal, S49, S78

  • in older adults, S100, S102–S103

  • predictors of, S123

  • prevention, S54, S123, S125

  • recommendations, S53

  • treatment, S54

  • unawareness, S29, S53, S54

immune-mediated diabetes, S14–S16

immunizations, S25–S26

IMPROVE-IT trial, S81

incretin-based therapies, S59, S65, S102

indapamide, S78

influenza vaccination, S26

inhaled insulin, S72, S73

injection-related anxiety, S29


  • basal, S72, S73

  • bolus, S72

  • carbohydrate intake and, S36

  • CGM and, S49

  • children and adolescents, S110

  • combination, S67–S70, S73

  • concentrated preparations, S72–S73

  • exercise hypoglycemia, S38

  • food insecure patients, S9

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S116

  • hospital care, S122

  • inhaled, S72, S73

  • median cost of, S72

  • older adults, S102

  • omission in disordered eating, S30

  • physiology, in pregnancy, S115

  • premixed, S72

  • principles of use, S71–S72

  • pump, S123

  • SMBG and, S49

  • type 1 diabetes, S64–S65, S122

insulin secretagogues, S38, S102

insurance, S8

kidney disease (nephropathy), S36, S38, S78, S88–S91, S109

Kumamoto Study, S51

language barriers, S9

laser photocoagulation therapy, S91–S93

LEADER trial, S71, S84

lifestyle management

  • cost-effectiveness, S45

  • DSME/DSMS, S7, S8, S33–S34, S46

  • exercise, S37–S38, S45

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S116

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S77, S108

  • nutrition therapy, S34–S36

  • pharmacology in, S46, S66

  • prevention/delay, type 2 diabetes, S44–S46

  • psychosocial issues, S39–S40

  • revisions summary, S4

  • smoking cessation, S38–S39

  • technology platforms, S45

  • weight loss, S34–S36, S44–S45, S57–S60

linagliptin, S59, S65, S68, S71

lipase inhibitors, S60

lipid management, S79–S81, S108–S109

liraglutide (Saxenda), S60, S69, S71, S84

lispro, S72, S73

lixisenatide, S69

long-term care, S102–S103

Look AHEAD trial, S29, S58

lorcaserin (Belviq), S60

loss of protective sensation, S95, S96

lovastatin, S80

macronutrient distribution, eating patterns and, S35

macular edema, S92–S93

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S20–S21

meal planning, S36

mean glucose, S50, S51

medical nutrition therapy (MNT), S34, S35, S123

Medicare reimbursement, DSME/DSMS, S34

medications. see pharmacotherapy

Mediterranean diet, S28, S34

meglitinides (glinides), S68, S71

mental health referral, S39, S40

mental illness, serious, S30, S39–S40

metabolic surgery, S59–S61


  • children and adolescents, S110

  • in CKD management, S90

  • exercise and, S37

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S116

  • lifestyle management, S45–S46

  • older adults, S102

  • principles of use, guidelines, S65–S68, S71, S73

metoclopramide, S95

micronutrients, S35, S37

microvascular complications

  • A1C and, S50–S51

  • foot care, S5, S95–S96

  • kidney disease, S36, S38, S78, S88–S91, S109

  • neuropathy, S38, S93–S95

  • retinopathy, S38, S91–S93, S109

  • revisions summary, S5

miglitol, S68, S71

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, S91

naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave), S60

nateglinide, S68, S71

neonatal diabetes, S20, S21

neuropathic pain, S94

neuropathy, S38, S93–S95, S109–S110

niacin, S81

nonnutritive sweeteners, S35, S37

NPH insulin, S72

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), S28


  • in CKD management, S90

  • in cognitive function, S28

  • in diabetes prevention, S45

  • gastroparesis, S95

  • in obesity management, S57–S58

  • therapy, S34–S36

obesity, type 2 diabetes

  • assessment of, S57

  • diet, S57–S58

  • interventions, S57–S58

  • lifestyle interventions, S57–S58

  • management benefits, S57, S58

  • metabolic surgery, S59–S61

  • pharmacotherapy, S58–S60

  • revisions summary, S5

obstructive sleep apnea, S29

older adults

  • cognitive impairment/dementia, S27–S28, S81, S100

  • end of life care, S103

  • epidemiology, S99–S100

  • glycemic control in, S100

  • hypoglycemia in, S100, S102–S103

  • pharmacotherapy, S102

  • recommendations, S99

  • treatment goals, S100–S101

  • treatment in LTC settings, S102–S103

opioid antagonist/aminoketone antidepressant combination, S60

orlistat (Alli), S60

orlistat (Xenical), S60

orthostatic hypotension, S95

pancreas, islet transplantation, S65

Patient-Centered Medical Home, S7–S8

PCSK9 inhibitors, S81

perindopril, S78

periodontal disease, S29

peripheral arterial disease (PAD), S96

peripheral neuropathy, S38, S93–S95

pharmacotherapy. see also specific drugs by name

  • ACE inhibitors/ARBs, S76–S78, S88, S91, S92, S108

  • antihyperglycemics, S59, S84

  • antihypertensives, S78

  • antiplatelets, S81–S83, S92

  • cardiovascular outcome trials, S70–S71

  • combination, S67–S70, S78, S81

  • concomitant, S59

  • as diabetes risk, S17

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S116–S118

  • glucocorticoids, S123–S124

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S77–S78, S108

  • in lifestyle management, S46, S66

  • mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, S91

  • obesity, S58–S60

  • older adults, S102

  • prevention/delay, type 2 diabetes, S45–S46

  • type 1 diabetes, S64–S65

  • type 2 diabetes, S65–S73

phentermine/topiramate ER (Qsymia), S60

physical activity, S37–S38, S45

pioglitazone, S68, S71

pitavastatin, S80

plate method, S36

pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination, S26

pneumonia vaccination, S26

point-of-care (POC) meters, S121

posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S22

pramlintide, S65, S68, S71

pravastatin, S80

prediabetes, S13–S14, S28

pregabalin, S94

pregnancy. see also gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

  • antihypertensive therapy, S78

  • contraception, S117

  • diabetes prevalence, S115

  • drugs contraindicated, S78, S114

  • glycemic control, S115–S116

  • hypertension/blood pressure control, S75–S78

  • lactation, S117

  • pharmacotherapy, S116–S118

  • postpartum care, S117

  • preconception counseling, S115

  • preexisting diabetes management, S116–S117

  • recommendations, S114

  • retinopathy, S38, S91–S93

  • revisions summary, S5

prevention/delay, type 2 diabetes

  • Diabetes Prevention Program, S44–S45

  • nutrition in, S45

  • pharmacologic interventions, S45–S46

  • recommendations, S44

  • revisions summary, S4–S5

Professional Practice Committee (PPC), S3

protease inhibitors (PIs), S28

proteins, S35, S36

psychosis, S30

psychosocial/emotional disorders, S29

psychosocial issues, S39–S40

P2Y12 receptor antagonists, S83

Qsymia (phentermine/topiramate ER), S60

repaglinide, S68, S71

resistance training, S37–S38

retinal photography, S91, S92

retinopathy, S38, S91–S93, S109

revisions summary, S4–S5

rosiglitazone, S68, S71

rosuvastatin, S80

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, S61

SAVOR-TIMI 53 study, S84

saxagliptin, S59, S65, S68, S71, S84

Saxenda (liraglutide), S60, S69, S71, S84

scientific evidence grading, S1–S2

screening. see diagnosis

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S48–S49

serotonin receptor agonists, S60

sexual dysfunction, S94, S95

SGLT2 inhibitors, S65, S69–S71, S73, S84, S90, S102, S122

shoes/footwear, S96

simvastatin, S80

sitagliptin, S59, S65, S68, S71

smoking cessation, S38–S39, S109

sodium, S35, S36

spironolactone, S91

SPRINT trial, S76, S77

statins, S28, S79–S80

sulfonylureas, S8–S9, S68, S71, S73, S116

sympathomimetic amine anorectic/antiepileptic combination, S60

tai chi, S37

tapentadol, S94

TECOS study, S84

testosterone, S29

thyroid disease, S107

tobacco, S38–S39, S109

TODAY study, S110

2-h plasma glucose testing, S12, S13

type 1 diabetes

  • autoimmune diseases, S26–S27, S107

  • celiac disease, S107–S108

  • children and adolescents, S105–S110

  • CKD management, S89–S90

  • classification, S11

  • CVD and, S51–S52

  • diagnosis, S14–S16

  • hypoglycemia in, S54

  • idiopathic, S16

  • immune-mediated, S14–S16

  • insulin, S122

  • pancreas, islet transplantation, S65

  • pathophysiology, S11–S12

  • pharmacotherapy, S64–S65

  • pregnancy, S116–S117

  • recommendations, S14

  • retinopathy, S38, S91–S93, S109

  • risk testing, S16

  • staging, S12

  • statins, S80

  • thyroid disease, S107

type 2 diabetes

  • age, screening, S14, S17

  • asymptomatic adults, screening, S14, S15, S17

  • BMI/ethnicity, screening, S14, S17

  • cancer and, S27

  • characterization, S16–S17

  • children and adolescents, S18, S110

  • children and adolescents, screening, S18

  • CKD management, S90

  • classification, S11

  • community screening, S17

  • CVD and, S52

  • dental practices, screening in, S17–S18

  • diagnosis, S16–S18

  • fat (dietary), S35, S36

  • hyperglycemia, S28

  • hypoglycemia, S28

  • obesity management (see obesity, type 2 diabetes)

  • pharmacotherapy, S65–S73

  • pregnancy, S116–S117

  • prevention/delay (see prevention/delay, type 2 diabetes)

  • proteins, S35, S36

  • recommendations, S16

  • retinopathy, S38, S91–S93

  • risk assessment, S15

  • risk factors, S29–S30

  • staging, S12

  • statins, S80

TZDs, S68, S71, S73, S84, S102

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S51, S52

urinary albumin–to–creatinine ratio (UACR), S89

VADT study, S51, S52

vitamin B12 deficiency, S37

weight management, S34–S36, S44–S45, S57–S60. see also obesity, type 2 diabetes

Xenical (orlistat), S60

yoga, S37

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