A1C, S15–S17, S66–S71. see also Glycemic targets

  • age and, S16

  • at hospital admission, S193–S194

  • at hospital discharge, S199

  • cardiovascular disease outcomes and, S68–S71

  • differences in children, S67, S167

  • differences in ethnic populations, S67–S68

  • glucose assessment, S68

  • goals, S68–S71, S166

  • hemoglobinopathies, S16

  • HIV and, S44

  • in hospitalized patients, S193

  • limitations of, S67

  • mean glucose and, S67

  • microvascular complications and, S68

  • other conditions affecting, S16

  • periodontal disease and, S45

  • physical activity benefits, S55

  • in prediabetes, S18

  • in pregnancy, S184, S186–S187

  • race/ethnicity, S16

  • recommendations, S66

  • setting individualized goals, S70–S71

  • target in CKD, S138

  • testing frequency, S66

  • validity in children/adolescents, S22

  • acanthosis nigricans, S18

  • acarbose, S106

  • access to care, S9, S203

ACCORD BP trial, S112–S113, S137

ACCORD MIND study, SS153

ACCORD study, S69, S70, S71, S120, S138

ACE inhibitors

  • in CKD patients, S141

  • in diabetic retinopathy, S143

  • for hypertension, S114–S117

  • in pregnancy, S114, S184, S189

acetaminophen, S79

acute kidney injury (AKI), S6, S115, S137–S138

ADA evidence-grading system, S2

ADA statements, S1, S203–S204

ADAG study, S71, S73

adolescents. see children and adolescents.

ADVANCE BP trial, S69, S70, S113

advocacy statements, S6, S203–S204

aerobic exercise, S55

affordability, of insulin, S203

Affordable Care Act (ACA), S9

aflibercept, S142

African Americans

  • A1C variability in, S16, S67

  • BMI cut point in, S20

  • exercise targets in, S54

  • food insecurity in, S10

  • hypoglycemia risk in, S72

  • risk-based screening, S21


  • A1C and, S16

  • in screening and testing, S20

Aging. see Older adults

AIM-HIGH trial, S120

Albiglutide, S125–S126, S128

Albuminuria, S136, S137

alcohol intake, S51, S54

alogliptin, S106, S124, S196

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, S106

Alzheimer disease, S153

ambulatory glucose report (AGP), S5, S69

amputations, foot, S145

amylin mimetic, S106

angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)

  • in CKD patients, S141

  • in diabetic retinopathy, S143

  • for hypertension, S114–S117

  • in pregnancy, S114, S184, S189

anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment, S142

antibiotic therapy

  • for diabetic foot infections, S144


  • in obesity management, S91

  • selection of, S101

  • for type 2 diabetes, S101

antihypertensives, S115–S117

  • bedtime dosing, S115

  • classes of, S115

  • hyperkalemia and AKI, S115

  • initial number of, S115

  • multiple-drug therapy, S115

  • in pregnancy, S189

  • resistant hypertension, S115–117

antiplatelet agents, S121–S122

antipsychotics, S60

antiretrovial therapies, S44

anxiety disorders, S5, S58–S59

ASCEND trial, S122

ascorbic acid, S79

Asian Americans

  • BMI cut point, S20, S90, S92

  • metabolic surgery in, S92, S94

  • risk-based screening, S20, S21

Aspart, S107


  • cardiovascular disease and, S121–S122

  • dosing, S122

  • with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, S122

  • in people less than 50 years of age, S122

  • preeclampsia and, S189

  • resistance, S122

assisted living facilities, S158

atenolol, S145, S189

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. see cardiovascular disease

atorvastatin, S118

atypical antipsychotics, S60

autoimmune conditions, S4, S42, S167–S168

automated insulin delivery, S84

autonomic neuropathy, S56

BARI 2D trial, S144

bariatric surgery, S92, S174

basal insulin analogs, S89–S90, S99, S105–S106

bedside blood glucose monitoring, S195

behavior change, S5, S11, S48–S65, S114–S115

  • cardiovascular disease and, S123

  • DSMES, S48–S50

  • in gestational diabetes mellitus, S187

  • in hypertension management, S114–S115

  • medical nutrition therapy, S50–S54

  • in obesity management, S90–S91

  • physical therapy, S54–S56

  • psychosocial issues, S57–S60

  • revisions summary, S5

  • smoking cessation, S56–S57

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S32–S34

β blockers, S115, S145, S189

β cell demise/dysfunction, S15

bevacizumab, S142

biguanides. see also metformin, S106

bile acid sequestrant, S106

blood glucose monitoring, bedside, S195

blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG), S5

blood pressure targets, S5. see also hypertension

  • in children/adolescents with type 1, S168–S169

body mass index (BMI), S5, S20, S89–S90

bolus calculators, S82

bone mineral density, S44

bromocriptine, S106

bupropion/naltrexone, S93

calcium channel blockers, S115–S117

canagliflozin, S105, S106, S124, S126, S127, S128, S129, S139

cancer, S42

CANVAS trial, S124, S126, S127, S129, S139

CANVAS-R trial, S124, S126, S127

capsaicin, topical, S144

carbamazepine, S144

carbohydrates, S51, S52–S53

cardiovascular disease, S5, S111–S134

  • A1C and outcomes of, S69–S71

  • ACCORD study, S69

  • ADVANCE study, S69

  • antiplatelet agents, S121–S122

  • aspirin, S121–S122

  • blood pressure control, S112–117

  • cardiac testing, S123

  • glucose-lowering therapies and, S123–S129

  • history of, S18

  • hypertension, S112

  • hypoglycemia as risk factor for, S70

  • lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, S123

  • lipid management, S117–S121

outcomes trials, S105

  • prevention of, in prediabetes, S3

  • revisions summary, S5

  • risk management in children/adolescents, S168–S170

  • screening, S122–S123

  • trials of glucose-lowering therapies, S123–S129

  • VADT study, S69

care delivery systems, S8–S9

  • access and quality improvement, S9

  • behaviors and well-being, S9

  • care teams, S8–S9

  • chronic care model, S8

  • cost considerations, S9

  • telemedicine, S9

CARMELINA trial, S124, S129

Caucasians, S94. see also ethnicity

celiac disease, S4, S168

cerebrovascular disease. see cardiovascular disease

Charcot neuroarthropathy of foot, S56, S146

child care settings

  • ADA statement of diabetes care in, S203

  • children with type 1 diabetes, S165

children and adolescents, S6, S163–S182

  • A1C validity in, S22

  • autoimmune conditions, S167–S168

  • cardiac function testing, S175

  • cardiovascular disease, S175

  • cardiovascular risk factor management, S168–S170

  • celiac disease, S168

  • complications, S174–S175

  • diabetes care in child care setting, S203

  • diabetes care in school setting, S203

  • DSMES in, S164

  • dyslipidemia, S169–S170, S175

  • exercise and, S55

  • glycemic control, S166–S167

  • glycemic targets, S172

  • hypertension, S168–S169

  • intermittent CGM use in, S81

  • lifestyle management, S171–S172

  • metabolic surgery, S174

  • microvascular complications, S170–S171

  • nephropathy, S170, S174

  • neuropathy, S170–S171, S174

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S175

  • nutrition therapy in, S164

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S175

  • pharmacologic management, S172–S174

  • physical activity and exercise, S164–S165

  • polycystic ovary syndrome, S175

  • psychosocial issues, S165–S166, S175–S176

  • real-time CGM use in, S81

  • retinopathy, S170, S174–S175

  • revisions summary, S6

  • school and child care, S165

  • screening and testing, S22, S171

  • smoking, S170

  • thyroid disease, S167–S168

  • transition from pediatric to adult care, S176

  • type 1 diabetes in, S63–S171

  • type 2 diabetes in, S171–S176

CHIPS study, S114

chronic care model, S8, S37

chronic kidney disease, S6, S135–S141

  • acute kidney injury, S137–S138

  • albuminuria assessment, S136

  • complications, S138

  • diagnosis, S136

  • epidemiology, S136

  • estimated GFR, S136

  • glycemic targets, S138

  • interventions, S138–S141

  • nutrition, S138

  • referral to nephrologist, S140–S141

  • renal effects of glucose-lowering agents, S139

  • risk assessment, S137

  • screening recommendations, S135

  • selection of glucose-lowering agents, S139–S140

  • staging, S136–S137

  • surveillance, S138

  • treatment recommendations, S135–S136

cigarettes, S34, S56, S170

classification, S4, S14–S15

clonidine, S145, S189

clopidogrel, S122

closed-loop pump system, S84, S196

cognitive impairment, S42–S43

  • evaluation, S42–S43

  • in older adults, S153

  • statins and, S121

colesevelam, S106

community health workers, S11

community screening, S20, S22

community support, S11

comorbidities, S4, S42–S45

computerized physician order entry (CPOE), S193–S194

CONCEPTT study, S187

congenital diabetes. see neonatal diabetes

consensus reports, S1–S2

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S5, S68, S79–S82

  • blinded (professional) devices, S82

  • in children/adolescents, S81, S167

  • devices, S80

  • glucose assessment using, S68

  • in hospitals, S195

  • in hypoglycemia prevention, S73–S74

  • impact of frequency on, S81

  • intermittent, S81

  • in pregnancy, S81, S187

  • real-time, S80–S82

  • recommendations, S79

  • side effects, S82

  • standardized metrics for clinical care, S68

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), S98, S99. see also pumps, insulin

contraception, S183–S184, S190

Coronary heart disease. see cardiovascular disease

correctional institutions, ADA statement on diabetes care in, S204

cost considerations, S9, S34, S106, S107, S155–S156, S203

counseling, preconception, S166, S183–S184

CREDENCE trial, S6, S129

cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), S4, S14, S22

dapagliflozin, S105, S106, S126, S127, S128

DASH diet, S114

DECLARE-TMI trial, S126, S127, S129

degludec, S99, S107

degludec/liraglutide, S107

deintensification of regimens, S155–S157

delay, type 2 diabetes, S4, S32–S36

  • cardiovascular disease prevention, S35

  • lifestyle interventions, S32–S34

  • pharmacologic interventions, S34–S35

  • revisions summary, S4

  • self-management/support, S35

dementia, S42–S43, S153. see also cognitive impairment/dementia

dental practices, screening in, S22

DEPS-R study, S166

Detemir, S107

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S15, S16, S44, S71, S98–S99, S138, S153

diabetes distress, S57–S58

diabetes plate method, S52

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), S33, S34, S84

Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), S34

Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program (DPRP), S534

diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES), S9

  • in children/adolescents with type 1, S164

  • facilitation of, S48–S50

  • in prediabetes, S35

  • recommendations, S48–S49

  • reimbursement, S50

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

  • in children with type 1, S167

  • due to intercurrent illness, S74

  • in hospitalized patients, S198

  • in type 1 diabetes, S17–S18

diabetic kidney disease

  • exercise in presence of, S56

  • protein intake, S53

Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS), S142

diabetic retinopathy. see retinopathy

diagnosis, S4, S15–S31

  • A1C, S15–S16

  • chronic kidney disease, S136

  • confirming, S17

  • cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, S22

  • fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, S15–S16

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S25–S27

  • monogenic diabetes syndromes, S23, S24–S25

  • posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S22–S24

  • type 1 diabetes, S17–S18

  • type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, S18–S22

diet. see also medical nutrition therapy

  • for weight loss, S90–S91

digital health technology, S84

dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, S115–S117

diltiazem, S189

discharge planning, S198–S199

diuretics, S114

DKA. see diabetic ketoacidosis.

domperidone, S145

dopamine-2 agonist, S106

DPP-4 inhibitors, S101, S106

  • cardiovascular outcome trials, S124

  • heart failure and, S129

  • in hospital care, S196

  • in older adults, S158

driving, ADA statement on diabetes and, S203–S204

droxidopa, S145

dulaglutide, S105, S106, S125–S126, S128

duloxetine, S144

Dying patients, end-of-life/palliative care, S159–S160

dyslipidemia, S35, S169–S170

e-cigarettes, S5, S56–S57, S170

eating disorders, S166

eating patterns, S50–S52

EDIC study, S138

electrocardiogram, S123

ELIXA trial, S125, S128

EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, S123–S124, S127, S129, S139

empagliflozin, S105, S106, S123–S124, S127, S128, S129, S139

employment, ADA statement on diabetes and, S204

enalapril, S145

end-of-life care, S159–S160

end-stage renal disease, S136, S139, S140

enteral/parenteral feedings, S197

epidemiology, of diabetes and CKD, S136

eplerenone, S140

erectile dysfunction, S146

ertugliflozin, S106

erythromycin, S145

ETDRS study, S142

ethnicity, S16, S18, S20. see also specific ethnicities

evidence-grading system, S2

EXAMINE trial, S124, S129

exenatide, S100, S106, S125–S126, S128

exercise. see physical activity

exocrine pancreas disease, S14–S15, S25

EXSCEL trial, S125, S128

ezetimibe, S119

family planning, S183–S184

fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, S15, S19

fats, dietary, S51, S53

fenofibrate, S120, S143

fibrates, S120

finerenone, S140

first-degree relatives, with diabetes, S18

fluvastatin, S118

food insecurity, S10

foot care, S6, S145–S147

  • loss of protective sensation, S144

  • patient education, S144

  • peripheral arterial disease, S144

  • recommendations, S145

  • revisions summary, S6

  • treatment, S144–S145

  • ulcers, S56, S145

fractures, S44

FRAX score, S45

galactose, S79

gastroparesis, S145

gemfibrozil, S120

genetic causes, MODY, S23, S24

genetic testing, S25

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S4, S14–S15, S25–S27, S187–S188

  • definition, S25–S26

  • diagnosis, S25–S27

  • lifestyle management, S187

  • medical nutrition therapy, S187

  • one-step strategy, S26–S27

  • pharmacologic therapy, S187–S188

  • postpartum care, S189–S190

  • postpartum conversion to type 2, S190

  • screening, S26

  • two-step strategy, S27

GI surgery. see metabolic surgery

glargine, S99, S107

glargine/lixisenatide, S107

glimepiride, S106

glinides, S106

glipizide, S106

glomerular filtration rate (GFR), S102, S124, S127, S135, S136, S137, S138, S139, S140, S156, S170

glucagon, S73

glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, S5, S6, S70, S100, S101, S105, S106, S126–S129, S196

  • cardiovascular outcome trials with, S125–S126

  • direct renal effects, S139

  • use in CKD patients, S139–S140

  • use in older adults, S158

glucocorticoid therapy, S198

glucose assessment

  • recommendations, S68

  • using CGM, S68

Glucose Management Indicator, S68

glucose meters. see self-monitoring of blood glucose

glucose monitoring. see also self- monitoring

  • in pregnancy, S186

glulisine, S107

glyburide, S106, S158, S187–S188

glycemic control

  • in diabetic neuropathy, S144

  • physical activity and, S55

  • real-time CGM impact on, S81

glycemic targets, S5, S66–S76

  • A1C goals, S68–S71

  • A1C testing, S66–S68

  • assessment of, S66–S68

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S166–S167

  • in chronic kidney disease, S138

  • in hospitalized patients, S194–S195

  • hypoglycemia, S71–S74

  • individualization of, S70–S71

  • intercurrent illness, S74

  • in pregnancy, S184, S186–S187

  • preprandial, S73

  • revisions summary, S5

  • summary of recommendations, S72

guanfacine, S145

HAPO study, S26, S186

Harmony Outcomes trial, S125, S128

hearing impairment. see sensory impairment

heart failure. see also cardiovascular disease

  • glucose-lowering therapies and, S129

hemoglobinopathies, S16

hepatitis B vaccination, S42

hepatitis C virus infection, S4, S43

hip fractures, S44

HIV, S44

homelessness, S10

hospital care, S6, S74, S193–S202

  • admission considerations, S193–S194

  • bedside blood glucose monitoring, S105

  • CGM, S195

  • delivery standards, S193–S194

  • diabetes care providers, S194

  • discharge planning, S198–S199

  • DKA, S198

  • enteral/parenteral feedings, S197

  • glucocorticoid therapy, S198

  • glucose-lowering treatment in, S195–S196

  • glycemic targets, S194–S195

  • hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S198

  • hypoglycemia in, S196–S197

  • insulin therapy, S195–S196

  • medical nutrition therapy in, S197

  • noninsulin therapies, S196

  • perioperative care, S198

  • preventing admissions/readmissions, S199

  • revisions summary, S6

  • self-management in, S197

  • standards for special situations, S197–S198

  • transition to ambulatory setting, S198–S199

  • type 1 diabetes, S196

HOT trial, S113

HPS2-THRIVE trial, S120

Human NPH, S107

Human Regular insulin, S107

Hydralazine, S114

hyperbaric oxygen therapy, S146–S147


  • definition in hospitalized patients, S194

  • effects on cognition, S43

  • in HIV, S44

  • with intercurrent illness, S74

  • posttransplant, S23

hyperkalemia, S115

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states, S198

hypertension, S18, S35, S112–S117

  • in children/adolescents, S168–S169

  • intensive versus standard treatment, S112–113

  • lifestyle interventions, S114–S115

  • pharmacologic interventions, S115–S117

  • pregnancy and antihypertensives, S114

  • recommendations, S116

  • resistant, S115–S117

  • screening and diagnosis, S117

  • treatment goals, S112–114

  • treatment strategies, S114–117

hypertriglyceridemia, S119–S120

hypoglycemia, S71–S74

  • CGM in prevention, S73–S74

  • classification, S72

  • definition in hospitalized patients, S194

  • effects on cognition, S43

  • glucagon, S73

  • glucose for, S71, S72

  • hospital management, S96–S197

  • in older adults, S153

  • postprandial after RYGB surgery, S94

  • predictors of, S197

  • prevention, S73

  • real-time CGM impact on, S821

  • recommendations, S71

  • risk assessment, S41

  • symptoms, S72

  • treatment, S73

  • triggering events, S196–S197

  • unawareness, S72

  • in young children with type 1 diabetes, S73

idiopathic diabetes, S17

illness, intercurrent, S74

immune-mediated diabetes, S17

immunizations, S39, S41–S42, S185

impaired fasting glucose (IFG), S15

impaired glucose tolerance (IPG), S15

IMPROVE-IT trial, S119

incretin-based therapies, S158. see also DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor antagonists

Indian Diabetes Prevention Program (IDPP-1), S35

influenza vaccination, S42

inhaled insulin, S99, S107

inherited diabetes, S23, S24

injectable therapies

  • injection technique, S99–S100

  • intensifying to, S104

  • site rotation, S100

inpatient care. see Hospital care

insulin, S101

  • access and affordability, S203

  • analog, S101

  • basal, S89–S90, S99, S105–S106

  • concentrated, S106–S107

  • human, S101

  • physiology in pregnancy, S186

  • prandial, S106

insulin delivery, S82–S85

  • combined pump and sensor systems, S83–S84

  • digital health technology, S84

  • future of, S84–S85

  • injection technique, S99–S100

  • inpatient care, S84

  • patch, S82

  • pumps, S82–S83

  • recommendations, S82, S83

  • syringes and pens, S82

  • transitioning from IV to subcutaneous, S196

insulin secretagogues, S158

insulin sensitizers, S144

insulin therapy

  • basal, SMBG in patents using, S78–S79

  • carbohydrates intake and, S53

  • in critical care setting, S195

  • intensifying to injectable, S104, S105

  • in noncritical care setting, S195–S196

  • in pregnancy, S188–S189

  • simplification of, for older adults, S156, S158

  • for type 1 diabetes, S98–S100

  • for type 2 diabetes, S104–S108

intensification, S108

intravenous insulin therapy, S196

intravitreal therapy, S142

islet autotransplantation, S43–S44

islet transplantation, S100

isradipine, S145


ketoacidosis. see diabetic ketoacidosis

kidney disease. see chronic kidney disease and diabetic kidney disease

Kumamoto study, S69

L-dopa, S79

labetalol, S114, S189

lactation, S190

language barriers, S11

laser photocoagulation surgery, S142

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, S15


  • exercise targets in, S54

  • food insecurity in, S10

  • migrant farmworkers, S4, S10-S11

  • risk-based screening, S18-S21

LEADER trial, S125, S126, S128, S139

lifestyle management. see behavior changes

linagliptin, S106, S124

Lipid management, S117–S121

  • lifestyle intervention, S117

  • ongoing therapy and monitoring, S117

  • statins, S117–S121

liraglutide, S93, S100, S105, S106, S107, S125–S126, S127, S128, S139

lixisenatide, S106, S107, S125–S126, S128

long-term care facilities, S158, S159

longer-acting insulin analogs, S99

Look AHEAD trial, S45, S90–S91

lorcaserin, S93

lorcaserin XR, S93

loss of protective sensation (LOPS), S146

lovastatin, S118

macronutrient distribution, S50–S52

macular edema, S142

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S14–S15, S23, S24–S25

meal planning, S50–S52

medical devices, for weight loss, S92

medical evaluation, S4, S37–S47

  • assessment and treatment plan, S41

  • comorbidities assessment, S42–S45

  • components of, S37–S40

  • immunizations, S41–S42

  • recommendations, S40

  • referrals, S41–S42

medical nutrition therapy, S4, S5, S50–S54.see also nutrition

  • alcohol, S54

  • carbohydrates, S52–S53

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S164

  • in chronic kidney disease, S138

  • eating patterns, S50–S52

  • in gestational diabetes mellitus, S187

  • goals for adults, S48

  • in the hospital, S197

  • macronutrient distribution, S50–S52

  • meal planning, S50–S52

  • micronutrients and supplements, S53–S54

  • nonnutritive sweeteners, S54

  • protein, S53

  • revisions summary, S5

  • sodium, S53

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S33

  • weight management, S52

medications. see also pharmacologic interventions

  • considerations in pregnancy, S189

  • with increased diabetes risk, S20

Mediterranean diet, S50

meglitinides, S106

mental health

  • anxiety disorders, S58–S59

  • depression, S59

  • disordered eating behavior, S59–S60

  • in metabolic surgery candidates, S94

  • psychosocial/emotional distress, S58

  • referrals for, S58

  • screening, S57

  • serious mental illness, S60

metabolic surgery, S92–S94

  • adverse effects, S94

  • in children/adolescents, S174

  • recommendations, S92


  • cardiovascular effects, S129

  • for CKD patients, S139

  • for gestational diabetes mellitus, S188, S157–S158

  • median monthly cost, S106

  • for older adults, S157–S158

  • to prevent/delay type 2 diabetes, S34–S35

  • for type 1 diabetes, S100

  • for type 2 diabetes, S101, S105

methyldopa, S114, S190

metoclopramide, S145

metoprolol, S145

micronutrients, S51, S53–S54

microvascular complications, S6, S135–S151

  • A1C and, S69

  • in children/adolescents with type diabetes, S170–S171

  • chronic kidney disease, S135–S141

  • diabetic retinopathy, S141–S143

  • exercise in presence of, S56

  • foot care, S145–S147

  • neuropathy, S143–S145

  • revisions summary, S6

midodrine, S145

MiG TOFU study, S188

miglitol, S106

migrant farmworkers, S4, S10–S11

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, S115, S116, S140

MiTY study, S188

MOMPOD study, S188

monogenic diabetes syndromes, S14–S15, S23, S24–S25

naltrexone/bupropion, S93

nateglinide, S106

National Diabetes Education Program, S8, S9

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), S44

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, S9

national policy

  • in diabetes prevention/delay, S34

neonatal diabetes, S14–S15, S23, S24

nephropathy. see also chronic kidney disease, S170

neurocognitive function

  • in older adults, S153

neuropathy, diabetic, S143–S145

  • autonomic, S143

  • cardiac autonomic, S143–S144

  • in children/adolescents, S170–S171

  • diagnosis, S143

  • erectile dysfunction, S145

  • gastrointestinal, S144

  • gastroparesis, S145

  • genitourinary, S144

  • glycemic control, S144

  • neuropathic pain, S144

  • orthostatic hypotension, S144–S145

  • peripheral, S143

  • screening, S143–S144

  • treatment, S143, S144–S145

new-onset diabetes after transplantation, S23

niacin, S120

NICE-SUGAR study, S194

nifedipine, long-acting, S114, S189

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S40

nonnutritive sweeteners, S51, S54

nursing homes, S158, S159

nutrition. see also medical nutrition therapy

  • effects on cognition, S43

obesity management, S5, S89–S97

  • approved medications, S92

  • assessing safety and efficacy, S92

  • assessment, S89–S90

  • behavioral therapy, S90–S91

  • in children/adolescents, S174

  • concomitant medications, S91–S92

  • diet, S90–S91

  • glucose-lowering therapy, S91

  • lifestyle interventions, S91

  • medical devices for, S92

  • metabolic surgery, S92–S94, S174

  • pharmacotherapy, S91–S92

  • physical activity, S90–S91

  • revisions summary, S5

  • weight management, S52, S174

obstructive sleep apnea, S45

olanzapene, S60

older adults, S6, S152–S162

  • deintensification/deprescribing, S155–S157

  • end-of-life care, S159–S160

  • hypoglycemia in, S73, S153

  • lifestyle management, S155

  • neurocognitive function, S153

  • pharmacologic therapy, S155–S158

  • recommendations, S152

  • revisions summary, S6

  • simplification of insulin therapy, S156, S157

  • in skilled nursing facilities/nursing homes, S159

  • treatment goals, S154–S155

  • with type 1 diabetes, S158–S160

one-step strategy, GDM, S26–S27

oral agents. see also specific medications

  • SMBG in patients using, S78–79

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), S15, S16, S23, S26

organ failure, end-of-life/palliative care, S160

orlistat, S93

orthostatic hypotension, S144–S145

P2Y12 receptor antagonist, S122

pain, neuropathic, S144

palliative care, S159–S160

pancreas transplantation, S100

pancreatectomy, S43–S44

pancreatic-related diabetes, S4, S14–S15, S25

pancreatitis, S43–S44

parenteral feedings, S197

patch, insulin, S82

pathophysiology, S15

patient education, on foot care, S146

patient-centered care, collaborative model, S37–S40

PCSK9 inhibitors, S119

pens, insulin, S82

periodontal disease, S4, S22, S45

perioperative care, S198

peripheral arterial disease. see also cardiovascular disease

  • evaluation of foot for, S146

peripheral neuropathy

  • exercise in presence of, S56

  • foot evaluation for, S146

pharmacologic interventions, S5, S91–S92, S98–S110.see also specific medications, medication classes

  • approved medications, S92, S93

  • assessing safety and efficacy, S92

  • for cardiovascular disease, S123

  • concomitant medications, S91–S92

  • costs of noninsulin medications, S106

  • glucose-lowering therapy, S91

  • revisions summary, S5

  • for type 1 diabetes, S98–S100

  • for type 2 diabetes, S100–S108

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S34–S35

phentermine, S92, S93

phentermine/topiramate, S92, S93

photocoagulation surgery, S142

physical activity, S54–S56

  • in obesity management, S90–S91

physical activity, S54-S56

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S164–S165

  • exercise and children, S55

  • frequency and types of, S55

  • hypoglycemia and, S56

  • with microvascular complications, S56

  • pre-exercise evaluation, S55–S56

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S33–S34

physical inactivity, S18

pioglitazone, S106

PIONEER trial, S128

pitavastatin, S118

plant-based diet, S50

pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination, S42

polycystic ovary syndrome, S18

population health, S4, S7–S13

  • care delivery systems, S8–S9

  • recommendations, S7

  • revisions summary, S4, S9–S11

  • social context, S9–S11

postpartum care, S189–190

postsurgical diabetes, S44

posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S22–S24

pramlintide, S100, S106

prandial insulin, S106

prasugrel, S122

pravastatin, S118

prazosin, S189

preconception counseling, S166, S183–S184


  • children and adolescents, S22

  • criteria, S19

  • diagnosis, S18–S19

  • nutrition and, S4

  • screening/testing, S19, S21

preeclampsia, S189

pregabalin, S144

pregnancy, S6, S183–S192

  • antihypertensive medications in, S114-S116

  • CHIPS study, S114

  • drug considerations, S189

  • gestational diabetes, S187–S188

  • glycemic targets in, S184, S186–S187

  • postpartum care, S189–S190

  • preconception care, S184, S185

  • preconception counseling, S183–S184

  • preeclampsia and aspirin, S189

  • with preexisting type 1 diabetes, S188

  • with preexisting type 2 diabetes, S188–S189

  • real-time CGM in, S81

  • revisions summary, S6

prevention, type 2 diabetes, S4, S32–S36

  • cardiovascular disease, S35

  • lifestyle interventions, S32–S34

  • pharmacologic interventions, S34–S35

  • revisions summary, S4

  • self-management education/support, S36

Professional Practice Committee, S3

protein, S51, S53

psychosocial/emotional disorders, S4, S57–S60

  • anxiety disorders, S58–S59

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S165–166

  • depression, S59

  • diabetes distress, S57–S58

  • disordered eating behavior, S59–S60

  • screening, S57

  • serious mental illness, S60

pumps, insulin, S82–S84

  • combined with sensor systems, S83–S84

  • do-it-yourself systems, S84

  • in older adults, S83

  • in pediatric patients, S83

  • subcutaneous insulin infusion, S98, S99

  • in type 2 diabetes, S83

quality improvement, 59

race, S16, S18

ranibizumab, S142

rapid-acting insulin analogs, S99, S107

real-time CGM

  • in adults, S80–S81

  • in children/adolescents, S81

  • in pregnancy, S81

  • in type 1 diabetes, S80–S81

  • in type 2 diabetes, S81



  • for initial care management, S42

  • to nephrologist for CKD, S140–S141

reimbursement, for DSMES, S50

repaglinide, S106

resistance exercise, S55

retinopathy, S141–S143

  • adjunctive therapy, S143

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S170

  • exercise in presence of, S56

  • focal laser photocoagulation surgery, S142

  • macular edema in, S141S6

  • in pregnancy, S141, S142

  • retinal photography, S142

  • revisions summary, S6

  • screening, S141–S142

  • treatment, S141, S142–S143

  • in type 1 diabetes, S141, S142

  • in type 2 diabetes, S142

REWIND trial, S125, S128

rosiglitazone, S106

rosuvastatin, S118

roux-en-Y gastric bypass, S92, S94

SAVOR-TIMI trial, S124

saxagliptin, S106, S124, S129, S196

schizophrenia, S60

school settings

  • ADA statement on diabetes care in, S203

  • children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S165

scientific evidence-grading system, S2

scientific review, S2


  • asymptomatic adults, S20–S22

  • for cardiovascular disease, S123

  • children and adolescents, S22

  • community, S20, S22

  • in dental practices, S22

SEARCH study, S169

second-generation antipsychotics, S60

self-management. see DSMES

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S5, S68, S77–S79

  • with basal insulin and/or oral agents, S78–S79

  • glucose meter accuracy, S79, S80

  • hypoglycemia prevention with, S73

  • with intensive insulin regimens, S78

  • interfering substances for, S79

  • meter standards, S79

  • optimizing monitor use, S78

  • preprandial versus postprandial, S71

  • recommendations, S77–S78

semaglutide, S5, S105, S106, S125–S126, S128, S139, S158

sensory impairment, S4, S44

SGLT2 inhibitors

  • AKI and, S137

  • cardiovascular outcomes trials, S105, S111, S123–S129

  • costs of, S106

  • direct renal effects, S139

  • hospital care, S196

  • revisions, S5–S6

  • use in CKD patients, S139–S140

  • use in older adults, S158

short-acting insulins, S107

simvastatin, S118

sitagliptin, S106, S124

skilled nursing facilities, S158, S159

  • hypoglycemia, S159

  • nutritional considerations, S159

  • resources, S159

sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, S45

smoking cessation, S56–S57

  • e-cigarettes, S57

  • tobacco, S56

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S34

  • in youth, S170

social context, S9–S11

sodium, S51, S53

spironolactone, S114, S140

SPRINT trial, S113

staging, of CKD, S136–S137


  • in children, S169

  • cognition, effects on, S43

  • cognitive function and, S11

  • in combination treatment, S119

  • diabetes risk with use of, S120–S21

  • ezetimibe and, S119

  • fibrates and, S120

  • niacin and, S120

  • PCSK9 inhibitors and, S119

  • in pregnancy, S184, S189

  • primary prevention with, S117, S118–S119

  • randomized trials, S119

  • revisions summary, S5

  • risk-based therapy, S118

  • secondary prevention with, S117–S118, S119

  • in type 1 diabetes, S118–S119


  • GLP-1 receptor agonists and, S125–S126, S127–S129

  • risk reduction, S113, S114, S118, S119, S120, S121, S122

  • SGLT2 inhibitors and, S123–S124, S126, S127

subcutaneous insulin infusion, continuous (CSII), S98, S99

sulfonylureas, 2nd generation, S100, S106, S158, S187–S188

supplements, S51, S53–S54

surgical treatment, for type 1 diabetes, S100

SUSTAIN trial, S126, S128, S139

sweeteners, nonnutritive, S51, S54

syringes, insulin, S82

tai chi, S55

tapentadol, S144

technology, S5, S77–S88

  • for CGM, S79–S82

  • in diabetes prevention/delay, S34

  • for insulin delivery, S82–S85

  • overall recommendations, S77

  • revisions summary, S5

  • for SMBG, S77–S79

TECOS trial, S124, S129

TEDDY study, S18

telemedicine, S9

temperature, effect on SMBG, S79

testosterone, low, S44–S45

thiazide-like diuretics, S115–S117

thiazolidinediones, S44, S100, S106, S129, S158

thought disorders, S60

thyroid disease, S167–S168

ticagrelor, S122

tobacco use

  • smoking cessation, S56–S57

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S34

topiramate/phentremine, S93

tricyclic antidepressants, S144


  • elevated, S119–S120

  • REDUCE-IT trial, S5, S120

two-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG), S15

  • in prediabetes, S18

two-step strategy, GDM, S27

type 1 diabetes

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease in, S69

  • in children and adolescents, S163–S171

  • classification, S14–S15

  • daily insulin requirements, S99

  • hospitalized, insulin therapy in, S196

  • hypoglycemia in young children with, S73

  • idiopathic, S17

  • immune-mediated, S17

  • insulin therapy, S98–S100

  • intermittent CGM in adults, S81

  • intermittent CGM in children/adolescents, S81

  • pharmacologic therapy, S98–S100

  • preexisting, in pregnancy, S188

  • real-time CGM in children/adolescents, S81

  • screening for risk, S17–S18, S21

  • staging, S15

  • surgical treatment, S100

type 2 diabetes

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease in, S69–S71

  • cardiovascular outcomes trials, S105

  • children and adolescents, S22

  • in children and adolescents, S171–S176

  • classification, S14–S15

  • combination therapy, S102

  • diagnosis, S19–S22, S171

  • DPP-4 inhibitors and cardiovascular outcome trials, S124

  • GLP1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular outcome trials, S125–S126

  • initial therapy, S102

  • intensifying to injectable therapies, S104

  • intermittent CGM in adults, S81

  • lifestyle management, S171–S172

  • metabolic surgery, S174

  • metabolic surgery in, S92, S94

  • overall approach, S103

  • pharmacologic therapy, S100–S108

  • postpartum conversion of GDM to, S190

  • preexisting, in pregnancy, S188–S189

  • prevention/delay, S32–S36

  • real-time CGM in adults, S81

  • screening/testing, S20–S22, S171

U-300 glargine, S99

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S69, S71, S123

uric acid, S79

vaccinations, S39, S41–S42

vascular dementia, S153

Vegetarian diet, S50

venlafaxine, S144

VERIFY trial, S5

Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), S69, S70

water intake, S54

weight loss. see obesity management

well-being, S9

whites. see Caucasians

wound care, for diabetic foot infections, S144

xylose, S79

yoga, S55

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