A1C, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S16–S18, S34, S73-S7

  • at hospital admission, S211-S212

  • at hospital discharge, S217

  • cardiovascular disease outcomes and, S77-S78, S138-S141

  • confirming the diagnosis, S18

  • differences in ethnic populations, S74

  • hemoglobinopathies, S16, S17-S18

  • HIV and, S23

  • in children and adolescents, S20, S23, S74, S183-S185

  • in hepatitis C infection, S48

  • in hospitalized patients, S212

  • in hyperglycemia, S46

  • in older adults, S170

  • limitations of, S74

  • mean glucose and, S74

  • microvascular complications and, S75-S76

  • other conditions affecting, S18

  • periodontal disease and, S49

  • physical activity benefits, S60

  • in prediabetes, S19-S21

  • in pregnancy, S203, S206

  • point-of-care assays, S4, S17

  • race/ethnicity, S117

  • sensory impairment and, S49

  • setting individualized goals, S78-S79

  • SMBG and, S74

  • target in CKD, S154

  • testing frequency, S73-S74

  • validity in children/adolescents, S20, S23-S24

acanthosis nigricans, S20, S188

acarbose, S118

access to care, S9, S221

ACCORD BP trial, S127-S128, S153

ACCORD MIND study, S46, S170

ACCORD study, S47, S77-S78, S80, S134, S155, S169

ACE inhibitors, S6, S129, S137, S142

  • In children and adolescents, S186-S187, S191

  • in CKD patients, S152-S156

  • in diabetic retinopathy, S156-S158

  • for hypertension, S128-s129

  • for hyperkalemia and AKI, S130-S131

  • in multiple drug therapy, S129

  • in pregnancy, S201, S206

acetaminophen, S87

acute kidney injury (AKI), S104, S128, S129, S130-S131, S143, S153, S215

ADA evidence-grading system, S2

ADA Insulin Access and Affordability Working Group, S9

ADA statements, S1, S221-S222

ADAG study, S74, S79, S80

adolescents. See children and adolescents.

ADVANCE BP trial, S127

advocacy statements, S6, S221–S222

aerobic exercise, S36, S57, S60-S62, S171, S181, S182

affordability, of insulin, S9

ADA Advocacy statement on, S221

Affordable Care Act (ACA), S9

aflibercept, S158

African Americans

A1C variability in, S17-S18, S74

  • BMI cut point in, S23

  • exercise targets in, S60

  • food insecurity in, S10

  • hypoglycemia risk in, S80

  • risk-based screening, S22, S23


  • A1C and, S17

  • in screening and testing, S23

aging. See Older adults

agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal, S11

AIM-HIGH trial, S134

albiglutide, S139, S144-S145, S173

albuminuria, S59, S62, S80, S126, S128, S129, S131, S136, S145, S152-S156, S185

alcohol intake, S59, S129

alogliptin, S118, S138, S145, S214

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, S37, S105, S118

Alzheimer disease, S46, S169

ambulatory glucose profile (AGP), S75, S76, S88

amputations, foot, S143, S159, S161-S163

amylin mimetic, S105, S113, S119

angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), S129

  • in acute kidney injury, S131-132

  • in CKD patients, S153

  • in diabetic retinopathy, S156, S158

  • for hypertension, S131, S156

  • in pregnancy, S201, S206

anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment, S158

antibiotic therapy, S162

antihyperglycemics, S115

  • cardiovascular and cardiorenal outcomes, S6, S138-S139, S141

  • selection of, S115

  • for type 2 diabetes, S115

antihypertensives, S126-S131

  • bedtime dosing, S129

  • classes of, S129

  • hyperkalemia and AKI, S129, S130-S131

  • in diabetics, S130

  • initial number of, S129

  • lifestyle intervention, S129

  • multiple-drug therapy, S129

  • in pregnancy, S128-S129, S206

  • resistant hypertension, S131

antiplatelet agents, S6, S135

antipsychotics, S21, S23, S66, S105

antiretroviral therapies, S19, S23

anxiety disorders, S64

ASCEND trial, S59, S136

ascorbic acid, S87

Asian Americans

  • BMI cut point, S19, S20, S21, S23, S101, S102, S105-S106

  • metabolic surgery in, S106

  • risk-based screening, S21, S22, S23

Aspart, S24, S112, S119, S173


  • cardiovascular disease and, S6, S135-S136, S137

  • dosing, S136

  • with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, S136-S137

  • in people less than 50 years of age, S136

  • preeclampsia and, S6, S205-S206

  • resistance, S136

assisted living facilities, S45, S175, S217

atenolol, S160, S206

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. See cardiovascular disease

atorvastatin, S132

atypical antipsychotics, S21, S23, S65, S66

atypical diabetes, S26, S46

autoimmune conditions, S19, S45, S184-S186, S188

autoimmune diabetes, S5, S15, S16, S25, S26

autoimmune markers, S18-S19

automated insulin delivery, S88, S91, S92, S93, S112, S183, S184

autonomic neuropathy, S61, S62, S81, S126, S159-S160, S216

BARI 2D trial, S160

bariatric surgery, S191, S196

basal insulin, S87, S88, S89, S92, S111, S112, S118, S120, S121, S122, S173, S175, S176, S181, S189, S213, S214, S215, S216

basal insulin analogs, S112, S120

bedside blood glucose monitoring, S213, S216

behavior change, S4, S9, S53–S72

  • cardiovascular disease and, S132

  • DSMES, S53-S55

  • in gestational diabetes mellitus, S204

  • in hypertension management, S131

  • medical nutrition therapy, S55–S60

  • in obesity management, S101-S104

  • physical activity, S60–S62

  • psychosocial issues, S62-S66

  • smoking cessation, S62

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S35–S36

β‐blockers, S45, S129, S137, S142, S161, S206

β‐cell demise/dysfunction, S16

bevacizumab, S158

biguanides. See also metformin, S118

bile acid sequestrant, S118

blood glucose monitoring, bedside, S213

blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG), S73-S75, S79, S81, S86-S90, S190

blood pressure targets, S126-S129, S131, S156

  in children/adolescents with type 1, S185–S186,  S187, S191-S192

body mass index (BMI), S19, S20, S23, S24, S25, S35, S36, S37, S46, S60, S61, S101-S102, S105, S106, S188, S191, S205, S207

bolus calculators, S91

bone mineral density, S50

bromocriptine, S118

bupropion/naltrexone, S103

calcium channel blockers, S129, S131, S156, S160

canagliflozin, S118, S120, S141, S142-S143, S144, S145, S155, S156

cancer, S42, S45-S46, S106, S144, S171, S187

CANVAS trial, S141, S142-S143, S145, S155

CANVAS-R trial, S143

capsaicin, topical, S160

carbamazepine, S160

carbohydrates, S5, S56, S57, S58, S59, S89, S169, S181, S182, S203, S204, S215

cardiovascular disease, S5-S6, S125–S150

  • A1C and outcomes of, S78-S79

  • ACCORD BP study, S127-S128, S153

  • ADVANCE study, S127

  • antiplatelet agents, S135-S137

  • aspirin, S135-S137

  • blood pressure control, S126-S131

  • cardiac testing, S138, S142

  • glucose-lowering therapies and, S142-S45

  • hypertension, S126-S131

  • intensive vs. standard treatment, S127

  • lifestyle intervention, S129, S142

  • lipid management, S131

  outcomes trials, S138

  pharmacologic interventions, S129-S131, S142

  • prevention of, in prediabetes, S3

  • risk calculator, S126

  • risk management in children/adolescents, S181, S185-S187

  • screening, S126, S138, S142

  • statin treatment, S131-S135

  • VADT study, S77, S169

care delivery systems, S8–S9

  • access and quality improvement, S9

  • behaviors and well-being, S9

  • care teams, S9

  • chronic care model, S8

  • cost considerations, S9

  • telemedicine, S9

CARMELINA trial, S138, S145

CAROLINA trial, S6, S138, S142

Caucasians, S106. See also ethnicity

celiac disease, S19, S45, S184, S185

cerebrovascular disease. See cardiovascular disease

Charcot neuroarthropathy of foot, S62, S161, S162

childcare settings

  • ADA statement on diabetes care in, S221

  • children with type 1 diabetes, S80, S182

children and adolescents, S6, S180–S199

  • A1C in, S20, S23, S74, S183-S185

  • autoimmune conditions, S185-S186

  • cardiac function testing, S192

  • cardiovascular disease, S192

  • cardiovascular risk factor management, S185-S187

  • celiac disease, S185

  • complications, S191-S193

  • DSMES in, S181

  • dyslipidemia, S186-S187, S192

  • exercise and, S60-S61

  • glycemic control, S183-S184

  • glycemic targets, S184

  • hypertension, S185-S186

  • in childcare setting, S182, S221

  • in school setting, S182, S188, S221

  • intermittent CGM use in, S89-S90

  • lifestyle management, S188–S189

  • metabolic surgery, S191

  • microvascular complications, S187-S188

  • nephropathy, S187, S191

  • neuropathy, S187, S191

  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S192

  • nutrition therapy in, S181

  • obstructive sleep apnea, S192

  • pharmacologic management, S183-S184, S189-S191

  • physical activity and exercise, S181-S182

  • polycystic ovary syndrome, S192

  • prediabetes in, S19

  • psychosocial issues, S182-S183, S192-193

  • real-time CGM use in, S89

  • retinopathy, S187, S191

  • screening and testing, S20, S23-S24, S189

  • smoking, S187

  • thyroid disease, S184-S185

  • transition from pediatric to adult care, S193

  • type 1 diabetes in, S181-S187

  • type 2 diabetes in, S188-S193

CHIPS study, S128

chronic care model, S7, S8, S40, S188

chronic kidney disease, S6, S151–S156

  • acute kidney injury, S153

  • albuminuria assessment, S152

  • cardiovascular disease and blood pressure, S156

  • complications, S155

  • diagnosis, S152

  • epidemiology, S152

  • estimated GFR, S152

  • glycemic targets, S154

  • interventions, S153-S157

  • nutrition, S153-S154

  • referral to nephrologist, S157

  • renal effects of glucose-lowering agents, S154

  • risk assessment, S154

  • screening, S151

  • selection of glucose-lowering agents, S154-S156

  • staging, S153

  • surveillance, S153

  • treatment recommendations, S151-S152

cigarettes, S62, S187, S193

classification, S4, S15–S16

clonidine, S161, S206

clopidogrel, S135, S137

closed-loop pump system, S6, S92, S93, S112, S205

cognitive impairment, S6, S10, S45, S63-S64, S103,

  • dementia and, S46

  • in hyperglycemia, S46

  • in hypoglycemia, S46

  • in older adults, S168-170, S171, S174, S175

  • lipid-lowering agents and, S135

  • statins and, S46

colesevelam, S118

community health workers, S11

community screening, S23

community support, S11

comorbidities, S7, S8, S25, S40–S42, S43

  assessment of, S45-S50

computerized physician order entry (CPOE), S212

CONCEPTT study, S203

congenital diabetes. See neonatal diabetes

consensus reports, S1–S2

continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), S5, S6, S86, S87-S90, S183, S202

  • professional devices, S90

  • in children/adolescents, S89, S167, S184, S191

  • devices, S87-S90

  • education and training, S89

  • glycemic control assessment with, S73, S74, S75

  • in hospitals, S213

  • in hypoglycemia prevention, S80–S81

  • intermittent, S89-S90

  • in older adults, S170, S175

  • in pregnancy, S203

  • real-time, S89

  • recommendations, S87-S89

  • side effects, S90

  • standardized metrics for clinical care, S76

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), S89, S91, S92, S111, S183, S205, S215. See also pumps, insulin

contraception, S104, S105, S183, S187, S200, S201, S202, S206, S207

coronary heart disease. See cardiovascular disease

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), S4, S42, S44, S55, S93

correctional institutions, ADA statement on diabetes care in, S222

cost considerations, S4, S9, S29, S106, S119

cost-related medication nonadherence, S4, S9

counseling, preconception, S182, S183, S193, S200-S201

COVID-19, S4, S42, S44, S55, S93

CREDENCE trial, S6, S141, S143, S145, S155

cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), S4, S15, S24

dapagliflozin, S118, S120, S141, S143, S145, S156

DASH diet, S35, S129, S131

DECLARE-TMI trial, S141, S143, S145

degludec, S112, S119, S120, S121, S174

degludec/liraglutide, S119, S121

deintensification of regimens, S171-S172, S174

delay, type 2 diabetes, S4, S20, S21 S34–S37

  • cardiovascular disease prevention, S37

  • lifestyle interventions, S34–S36

  • pharmacologic interventions, S36–S37

dementia, S46, S80, S135, S169. See also cognitive impairment/dementia

dental practices, screening in, S23

DEPS-R study, S182, S183

Detemir, S119, S120, S173

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), S16-S17, S49, S75-S80, S92, S111, S112, S154, S183, S187

diabetes distress, S5, S63-S65, S182, S192

diabetes plate method, S67

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), S20, S35, S36, S37

Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), S21, S35, S37, S59, S115

diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES), S5, S9

  • education and support for, S53-S55

  • evidence for benefits, S54

  • reimbursement, S55

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), S15-S16

  • in children with type 1, S181, S184

  • in children with type 2, S188, S190

  • in hospitalized patients, S216

  • in pregnancy, S205

  • in type 1 diabetes, S18–S19

diabetic kidney disease (DKD). See also chronic kidney disease.

  • exercise in presence of, S62

  • protein intake, S59

Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS), S158

diabetic retinopathy. See retinopathy

diagnosis, S4, S15–S31

  • A1C, S16–S18

  • chronic kidney disease, S152-S153

  • confirming, S18

  • cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, S24

  • fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, S16

  • gestational diabetes mellitus, S27–S29

  • monogenic diabetes syndromes, S25–S27

  • oral glucose tolerance test, S16

  • pancreatic, S27-

  • posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S24–S25

  • type 1 diabetes, S18–S19

  • type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, S19–S24

diet, S5, S6, S35, S46. See also medical nutrition therapy

  • for children and adolescents, S181, S185

  • for chronic kidney disease, S154-S155

  • for hypertension, S129

  • for lipid management, S131

  • for older adults, S175-176

  • for pregnancy, S204

  • for weight loss, S101-S102

digital health technology, S93

dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, S129, S130, S131, S156

diltiazem, S206

discharge planning, S212, S217

diuretics, S23, S128, S129, S130, S152, S153

DKA. See diabetic ketoacidosis.

domperidone, S161

dopamine-2 agonist, S118

DPP-4 inhibitors, S6, S114, S115, S116, S118, S121, S138, S142, S144-S145, S172-S173

driving, S81, S86, S183

  ADA statement on diabetes and, S222

droxidopa, S160

dulaglutide, S118, S120, S139, S144-S145

duloxetine, S159, S160

dying patients, end-of-life/palliative care, S171, S176

dyslipidemia, S20, S21, S37, S46, S61, S105, S125, S126, S133, S136, S157, S171

  prevention and management, S192

  testing, S186

  treatment, S186

e-cigarettes, S62, S170

eating disorders, S65, S166 S181, S182, S183, S193

eating patterns, S35, S41, S55-S57, S58, S59, S63, S189, S207

EDIC study, S49, S76, S77, S78, S80, S154

electrocardiogram, S137, S138, S192, S202

ELIXA trial, S139, S140, S144

EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, S141, S142, S145

empagliflozin, S118, S120, S141, S142, S144, S145, S155, S156

employment, ADA statement on diabetes and, S222

enalapril, S160

end-of-life care, S170-S171, S176

end-stage renal disease, S74, S78, S138, S140, S143, S152, S171, S174

enteral/parenteral feedings, S6, S215-S216

epidemiology, of diabetes and CKD, S152

eplerenone, S157

erectile dysfunction, S49, S159, S161

ertugliflozin, S118

erythromycin, S161

ETDRS study, S158

ethnicity, S17, S18, S23. See also specific ethnicities

evidence-grading system, S2, S20

EXAMINE trial, S138, S145

exenatide, S113, S118, S139, S144-S145

exercise. See physical activity

exocrine pancreas disease, S15–S16, S26, S27, S48

EXSCEL trial, S139, S140, S144

ezetimibe, S132, S133, S135, S141

family planning, S46, S200, S201, S207

fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, S16, S17, S19, S21, S79, S188, S201, S206

fats, dietary, S5, S56, S59, S186, S192, S204

fenofibrate, S134

fibrates, S134, S192

finerenone, S156

first-degree relatives, with diabetes, S16, S21

fluvastatin, S132

food insecurity, S10

foot care, S6, S161–S167

  • evaluating for loss of protective sensation, S161-162

  • evaluating for peripheral arterial disease, S162

  • patient education, S162

  • recommendations, S161

  • revisions summary, S6

  • treatment, S162

  • ulcers, S61, S62, S162

fractures, S49, S143, S173, S174

FRAX score, S49

GAD autoantibodies, S18

galactose, S87

gastroparesis, S159, S160-S161

gemfibrozil, S134

genetic carrier status, S202

genetic counseling, S25, S26

genetic disorders, S27, S45

genetic factors, S16, S17, S18, S19, S21, S74

genetic testing, S25, S26

gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), S27–S29, S36, S37, S203, S204-S205, S206-S207

  • definition, S27

  • diagnosis, S27–S28

  • future considerations, S29

  • glucose monitoring, S203-S204

  • initial testing, S206

  • lifestyle management, S36, S204

  • lifelong testing after, S20

  • management of, S204-S205

  • medical nutrition therapy, S204

  • one-step strategy, S28

  • pharmacologic therapy, S37, S204

  • postpartum follow-up, S206

  • postpartum conversion to type 2, S206-S207

  • risks in women with prior, S21

  • screening, S86

  • two-step strategy, S28-S29

GI surgery. See metabolic surgery

glargine, S112, S119, S120, S121, S173

glargine/lixisenatide, S119

glimepiride, S118, S138, S142, S172

glinides, S118

glipizide, S118, S172

glomerular filtration rate (GFR), S25, S59, S114, S115, S116, S129, S131, S137, S138, S140, S141, S143, S151, S152-S153, S154, S172, S173, S187, S191

glucagon, S27, S79, S80, S81

glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, S5, S48, S65, S77, S104, S105, S113, S115, S116, S117, S118, S137, S138, S140, S143-S144, S152, S169, S189, S214

glucocorticoid therapy, S6, S15, S216

glucose assessment, using CGM, S75

glucose management indicator, S75, S76, S203

glucose meters. See self-monitoring of blood glucose

glucose monitoring. See also self-monitoring

  • in pregnancy, S203

glulisine, S119, S173

glyburide, S118, S172, S204

glycemic control, S1, S6, S8, S9, S10, S17, S25, S42, S46, S49, S56, S57, S78

  • assessment of, S73-S75

  • in diabetic neuropathy, S160

  • physical activity and, S61

  • real-time CGM impact on, S89

glycemic targets, S5, S73-S84

  • A1C and microvascular complications, S75-S76

  • A1C and SMBG correlations, S74

  • A1C differences in ethnic groups, S74

  • A1C in children, S74

  • A1C limitations, S74

  • assessment of, S73–S75

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S184

  • in chronic kidney disease, S154

  • in hospitalized patients, S212-S213

  • hypoglycemia, S79–S81

  • individualization of, S77, S78, S128

  • intercurrent illness, S81

  • in pregnancy, S201-S203

  • preprandial, S79

guanfacine, S160

HAPO study, S27, S28, S203

Harmony Outcomes trial, S139, S140, S144, S173

Hawaiians, native, S22

health literacy, S11

hearing impairment. See sensory impairment

heart failure. See also cardiovascular disease

  glucose-lowering therapies and, S137,   S144-S145

hemoglobinopathies, S16, S17, S24, S34, S188

hepatitis B vaccination, S45, S47, S202

hepatitis C virus infection, S49, S202

hip fractures, S49

Hispanic Americans, S21, S22

HIV, S4, S15, S23

HLA-DQ/DR alleles, S18

homelessness, S10-S11

hospital care, S6, S211–S220

  • admission considerations, S211-S212

  • bedside blood glucose monitoring, S213

  • CGM, S213

  • critical care settings. S213

  • delivery standards, S211-S212

  • diabetes care providers, S212

  • discharge planning, S216-S217

  • DKA, S216

  • enteral/parenteral feedings, S215

  • glucocorticoid therapy, S216

  • glucose-lowering treatment in, S213-S214

  • glycemic targets, S212–S213

  • hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, S216

  • hypoglycemia in, S214-S215

  • insulin therapy, S213-S214

  • medical nutrition therapy in, S215

  • medication reconciliation, S217

  • noninsulin therapies, S214

  • perioperative care, S216

  • preventing admissions/readmissions, S217

  • self-management in, S215

  • standards for special situations, S215–S216

  • transition to ambulatory setting, S216-S217

  • transitioning IV to SC insulin, S214

  • type 1 diabetes, S214

HOT trial, S127

housing insecurity, S10-S11

HPS2-THRIVE trial, S135

human NPH, S119, S120, S173

human papillomavirus vaccination, S47

human regular insulin, S119, S120, S121, S215-S216

hydralzine, S128

hyperbaric oxygen therapy, S163

hyperglycemia, S6, S46

  • definition in hospitalized patients, S212

  • effects on cognition, S169

  • in children and adolescents, S182, S183, S189

  • in diabetes diagnosis, S18

  • in gestational diabetes mellitus, S27

  • in pancreatic diabetes, S27

  • with intercurrent illness, S81

  • posttransplant, S24-S25

hyperkalemia, S130-S131, S143, S153, S156

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states, S81, S170, S189, S190, S216

hypertension, SS6, S20, S37, S126–S131

  • in children/adolescents, S185-S186

  • intensive versus standard treatment, S127-S128

  • lifestyle interventions, S129-

  • pharmacologic interventions, S129-S132

  • pregnancy and antihypertensives, S128

  • resistant, S131

  • screening and diagnosis, S126

  • treatment strategies, S129-S131

hypertriglyceridemia, S59, S112, S114, S134

hypoglycemia, S79-S81

  • CGM in prevention, S81

  • classification, S80

  • effects on cognition, S46

  • glucagon for, S79, S80

  • glucose for, S79, S80

  • hospital management, S214-S215

  • in older adults, S169-S170

  • postprandial after RYGB surgery, S107-S108

  • predictors of, S215

  • prevention, S80-SS81

  • real-time CGM impact on, S81

  • risk assessment, S45

  • symptoms, S79-S80

  • treatment, S80

  • triggering events, S215-S216

  • unawareness, S79

  • in young children with type 1 diabetes, S80

idiopathic type 1 diabetes, S19

illness, intercurrent, S81

immune-mediated diabetes, S18-S20

immunizations, S5, S42-S45, S47, S202

impaired fasting glucose (IFG), S16, S17, S20, S21

impaired glucose tolerance (IPG), S17, S20, S21, S34, S104, S204

IMPROVE-IT trial, S133,

incretin-based therapies, S6, S48, S144, S172-S173. See also DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor antagonists

Indian Diabetes Prevention Program (IDPP-1), S37

influenza vaccination, S42, S44, S47

inhaled insulin, S91, S112, S119, S121

inherited diabetes, S19, S25

injectable therapies, S119-S120, S156, S173, S204

  • combination, S121

  • for type 1 diabetes, S112

  • intensifying to, S117

inpatient care. See Hospital care

insulin, S101, S118

  • access and affordability, S221

  • analog, S118, S119-S121

  • basal, S87, S88, S89, S92, S111, S112, S118, S120, S121, S122, S173, S175, S176, S181, S189, S213, S214, S215, S216

  • concentrated, S121

  • human, S119, S120, S121, S215-S216

  • median cost of, S119

  • physiology in pregnancy, S203

  • prandial, S86, S111, S112, S120-S121, S181, S182, S214, S215

insulin delivery, S90–S93

  • automated systems, S93

  • combined pump and sensor systems, S92-S93

  • digital health technology, S93

  • future of, S93-S94

  • inpatient care, S90

  • pumps, S91-S93

  • syringes and pens, S90-S91

  • transitioning from IV to subcutaneous, S214

insulin secretagogues, S45, S56, S61, S80, S105, S172

insulin sensitizers, S160

insulin therapy, S111-113

  • basal, SMBG in patents using, S87

  • carbohydrates intake and, S56, S57

  • in critical care setting, S213

  • injection technique, s113

  • intensifying to injectable, S9, S113, S118, S21

  • in noncritical care setting, S213-S214

  • in pregnancy, S205

  • simplification of, for older adults, S174

  • for type 1 diabetes, S214

  • for type 2 diabetes, S113–S114

intensification, of insulin treatment, S9, S113, S118, S21

interval, testing, S23

intravenous insulin therapy, S189, S212, S213-S214, S216

intravitreal therapy, S158

islet autoantibody testing, S18, S21

islet autotransplantation, S27, S49

islet transplantation, S5, S80, S113

isradipine, S160

Japanese Americans, S23

juvenile-onset diabetes. See Type 1 diabetes.


ketoacidosis. See diabetic ketoacidosis

kidney disease. See chronic kidney disease and diabetic kidney disease

Kumamoto study, S76

L-dopa, S87

labetalol, S128, S206

lactation, S207

language barriers, S11

laser photocoagulation surgery, S157, S158

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, S4, S16


  • food insecurity in, S10

  • migrant farmworkers, S11

  • risk-based screening, S20

LEADER trial, S143, S173

lifestyle management. See behavior changes

linagliptin, S118, S138, S142, S145

lipid management, S131

  • lifestyle intervention, S131

  • ongoing therapy and monitoring, S131

  • statins, S132–S134

liraglutide, S37, S46, S104, S113, S118, S120, S139, S143-S145, S155, S173, S189, S190

Lispro, S119, S121, S174

lixisenatide, S118, S119, S121, S131, S144, S145

long-term care facilities, S174, S175, S211

longer-acting insulin analogs, S112, S120

Look AHEAD trial, S49, S102, S142, S172

loss of protective sensation (LOPS), S159, S161-S162

lovastatin, S132

macronutrient distribution, S35, S55, S56, S58, S59

macular edema, S157, S158, S172

maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), S16, S25-S26, S180, S188

meal planning, S56-S57, S58, S202

medical devices, for weight loss, S105

medical evaluation, S4-S5, S19, S40-S52

  • comorbidities assessment, S45–S50

  • components of, S41, S43, S45

  • immunizations, S42–S45

  • in patient-centered collaborative care, S40-S41

  • recommendations, S42

  • referrals, S42, S46

Medicaid expansion, S9

medical nutrition therapy, S55-S60

  • alcohol, S59

  • carbohydrates, S58

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S181

  • in chronic kidney disease, S153-S154

  • eating patterns, S55-S56

  • fats, S60

  • in gestational diabetes mellitus, S204

  • goals for adults, S55

  • in the hospital, S215

  • macronutrient distribution, S55

  • meal planning, S55-S56

  • micronutrients and supplements, S59

  • nonnutritive sweeteners, S59-S60

  • protein, S58-S59

  • recommendations for, S56

  • sodium, S59

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S35

  • weight management, S57-S58

medications. See also pharmacologic interventions

  • considerations in pregnancy, S206

  • with increased diabetes risk, S23

Mediterranean diet, S46, S56, S57, S59, S131

meglitinides, S45, S118

mental health

  • anxiety disorders, S64-S65

  • depression, S65

  • diabetes distress, S65-S66

  • disordered eating behavior, S65

  • in metabolic surgery candidates, S64

  • psychosocial/emotional distress, S64

  • referrals for, S64

  • screening, S63

  • serious mental illness, S65-S66

metabolic surgery, S57, S64, S101, S102, S105-S107

  • adverse effects, S106-S107

  • in children/adolescents, S191

metformin, S25, S27, S59

  • cardiovascular outcomes, S138

  • for CKD patients, S155

  • for gestational diabetes mellitus, S204

  • median monthly cost, S119

  • for older adults, S172

  • to prevent/delay type 2 diabetes, S36–S37

  • for type 1 diabetes, S113

  • for type 2 diabetes, S113-S121

methyldopa, S128, S206

metoclopramide, S161

metoprolol, S160

micronutrients, S55, S56, S59

microvascular complications, S5, S6, S8 S151–S167

  • A1C and, S75-S76

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S187

  • chronic kidney disease, S151-S156

  • diabetic retinopathy, S156–S158

  • exercise in presence of, S62

  • foot care, S161–S162

  • neuropathy, S158-S161

midodrine, S160

MiG TOFU study, S204

miglitol, S118

migrant farmworkers, S11

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, S131, S156

MiTY study, S205

MOMPOD study, S205

monogenic diabetes syndromes, S15–S16, S25–S26

naltrexone/bupropion, S103

nateglinide, S37, S118

National CLAS Standards, S11

National Diabetes Education Program, S8S224

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), S17, S49, S188

National Health Interview Survey, S10

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, S9

native Americans, S22

neonatal diabetes, S15–S16, S180 S200, S202, S203

nephropathy. See also chronic kidney disease. S21, S138, S140, S141, S143, S155, S157, S202

prevention and management, S191

screening, S186

treatment, S187

neurocognitive function

  • in older adults, S169

neuropathy, diabetic, S158-S161

  • autonomic, S159

  • cardiac autonomic, S159

  • in children/adolescents, S189, S191

  • diagnosis, S159

  • erectile dysfunction, S159

  • gastrointestinal, S159

  • gastroparesis, S160-S161

  • genitourinary, S159-S160

  • glycemic control, S160

  • neuropathic pain, S160

  • orthostatic hypotension, S160

  • peripheral, S159

  • screening, S158–S159

  • treatment, S160

new-onset diabetes after transplantation, S24

niacin and statin combination, S134, S135

NICE-SUGAR study, S212

nifedipine, long-acting, S128, S206

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, S46, S48, S115, S192, S202, S225

nonnutritive sweeteners, S56, S59-S60

nursing homes, S175-S176

nutrition. See medical nutrition therapy

obesity management, S5, S100–S110

  • approved medications for treatment of, S103-S104, S105

  • assessment, S100-S101

  • behavioral therapy, S101-103

  • in children/adolescents, S188-S191

  • concomitant medications, S105

  • diet, S101-103

  • glucose-lowering therapy, S105

  • in diabetes screening, S24

  • lifestyle interventions, S103

  • medical devices for, S105

  • metabolic surgery, S105-S107, S191

  • pharmacotherapy, S105

  • physical activity, S101-S103

  • weight loss medication safety and efficacy, S105

  • weight management, S57, S60, S188

obstructive sleep apnea, S49, S192

olanzapene, S66, S109

older adults, S6, S10, S168–S179

  • deintensification/deprescribing, S172, S174

  • end-of-life care, S176

  • hypoglycemia in, S169-170

  • lifestyle management, S171-S172

  • neurocognitive function, S169

  • pharmacologic therapy, S172-175

  • simplification of insulin therapy, S174

  • in skilled nursing facilities/nursing homes, S175-S176

  • treatment goals, S170-S171

  • with type 1 diabetes, S175

one-step strategy, GDM, S28-S29

oral agents. See also specific medications

SMBG in patients using, S87

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), S16, S17, S19, S21, S24, S26, S27, S28, S79, S188, S204, S206

organ failure, end-of-life/palliative care, S171, S176

orlistat, S37, S103

orthostatic hypotension, S126, S128, S159, S160

P2Y12 receptor antagonist, S135, S136

Pacific Islanders, S22

pain, neuropathic, S159, S160, S187

palliative care, S170, S175-S176

pancreas transplantation, S113

pancreatectomy, S27, S49, S92

pancreatic-related diabetes, S4, S15–S16, S27, S212

pancreatitis, S4, S15, S27, S48-S49, S104, S134, S144, S192

parenteral feedings, S6, S215, S216

patch, insulin, S90

pathophysiology, S16, S180, S186

patient education, S9, S11, S41, S81, S184

on foot care, S162

patient-centered care, collaborative model, S40-S42, S53, S62, S217

Patient-Centered Medical Home, S9, S217

PCSK9 inhibitors, S132, S133-S134

pens, insulin, S90-S91

periodontal disease, S23, S49

perioperative care, S216

peripheral arterial disease. S125, S137, S61, S162

peripheral neuropathy, S36, S45, S49, S62, S92, S158-S161

pharmacologic interventions, S5, S111–S124.See also specific medications, medication classes.

  • approved medications, S113, S115

  • assessing safety and efficacy, S115

  • for cardiovascular disease, S137-S139

  • concomitant medications, S105

  • costs of noninsulin medications, S118

  • glucose-lowering therapy, S105

  • for type 1 diabetes, S111-S113

  • for type 2 diabetes, S113-S121

  • for weight loss, S105

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S36-S37

  • selecting drugs for, S115

phentermine, S103, S105

phentermine/topiramate, S37, S103

photocoagulation surgery, S157, S158

physical activity, S6, S21, S23, S35, S41, S60-S62

  • exercise and children, S60-S61

  • frequency and types of, S61

  • glycemic control and, S61

  • hypoglycemia and, S61-S62

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S181-S182

  • in obesity management, S101-S102

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S35-S36

  • pre-exercise evaluation, S61

  • with microvascular complications, S62

physical inactivity, S20, S46

pioglitazone, S46, S118

PIONEER trial, S6, S139-S140, S143

pitavastatin, S132

plant-based diet, S35, S57

pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination, S45, S47

point-of-care A1c assays, S4, S17

polycystic ovary syndrome, S20, S21, S192, S202, S204, S205

population health, S4, S7–S14

  • care delivery systems, S8–S9

  • recommendations, S7

  • revisions summary, S4

  • social context, S10–S11

postpartum care, S206-S207

postsurgical diabetes, S49

posttransplantation diabetes mellitus, S4, S15, S24–S25

pramlintide, S113, S118, S161

prandial insulin, S86, S111, S112, S120-S121, S181, S182, S214, S215

prasugrel, S137

pravastatin, S132

prazosin, S206

preconception counseling, S166, S183–S184 S182-S183, S193, S200-S201


  • children and adolescents, S20

  • criteria, S20, S21

  • diagnosis, S19–S20

  • screening/testing, S20, S21-S24

preeclampsia, S200, S201, S203

aspirin and, S205-S206

pregabalin, S105, S159, S160

pregnancy, S6, S200–S210

  • A1C in, S203

  • antihypertensive medications in, S128-S129, S206

  • CHIPS study, S128

  • continuous glucose monitoring in, S203-S204

  • contraception after, S207

  • drug considerations, S206

  gestational diabetes, S27–S29, S36, S37,   S203, S204-S205, S206-S207

  • glucose monitoring in, S203

  • glycemic targets in, S201-S203

  • insulin physiology in, S203

  • lactation, S207

  • postpartum care, S206-S207

  • preconception care, S201

  • preconception counseling, S166, S183–S184 S182-S183, S193, S200-S201

  • preeclampsia and aspirin, S205-S206

  • with preexisting type 1 diabetes, S205

  • with preexisting type 2 diabetes, S205

  • real-time CGM in, S90

preprandial glycemic targets, S79

prevention, type 2 diabetes, S4, S34–S39

  • Diabetes Prevention Program, S35

  • lifestyle interventions, S34-S36

  • of vascular disease and mortality, S37

  • pharmacologic interventions, S36–S37

Professional Practice Committee, S3

protein, dietary, S35, S55, S56, S57, S58-S59, S80, S102, S112, S152, S153, S171, S191

psychosocial/emotional disorders, S4, S63-S66

  • anxiety disorders, S65-S66

  • in children/adolescents, S182-S183, S192-193

  • depression, S66

  • diabetes distress, S63-S65

  • disordered eating behavior, S66

  • referral to mental health specialist, S64

  • screening, S63

  • serious mental illness, S65-S66

pumps, insulin, S5, S91-S93

  • automated systems, S93

  • combined with sensor systems, S92–S93

  • do-it-yourself systems, S92

  • in older adults, S92

  • sensor-augmented, S92

  • in type 2 diabetes, S92

  • in youth, S92

quality improvement, S9

race, S17-S18, S20, S36, S60, S81, S92, S102, S126, S138, S139, S141. See also specific races

ranibizumab, S158

rapid-acting insulin analogs, S111, S112, S119, S121, S215, S216

real-time CGM

  • in adults, S89

  • in children/adolescents, S6, S89, S184

  • in pregnancy, S90

  • in type 1 diabetes, S170

  • in type 2 diabetes, S89

REDUCE-IT, S59, S134


  • for eye care, S187

  • for initial care management, S4, S46

  • for mental health care, S65

  • to nephrologist for CKD, S152, S153, S156

reimbursement issues, S37, S54, S55

repaglinide, S24, S118

resistance exercise, S57, S60, S61

retinopathy, S21, S43, S156–S158

  • adjunctive therapy, S158

  • anti-VEGF treatment, S158

  • in children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes, S187, S191-S192

  • exercise in presence of, S61, S62

  • photocoagulation surgery, S158

  • macular edema in, S157, S158

  • in pregnancy, S201, S202, S205

  • retinal photography, S157-S158

  • treatment, S157, S158

  • in type 1 diabetes, S58

  • in type 2 diabetes, S158

  • with chronic kidney disease, S152-S153

REWIND trial, S144

risk management, cardiovascular disease, S5-S6, S125-S150

rosiglitazone, S118

rosuvastatin, S132, S135

roux-en-Y gastric bypass, S106

SARS-CoV-2, S4, S42, S44, S55, S93

SAVOR-TIMI trial, S138, S144

saxagliptin, S118, S138, S144-S145, S214

schizophrenia, S66

school settings, S80, S181-S183, S188

  • ADA statement on diabetes care in, S2221

scientific evidence-grading system, S2, S55

scientific review, S2, S4, S5


  • asymptomatic adults, S21–S23

  • for cardiovascular disease, S137

  • children and adolescents, S23-S24

  • community, S23

  • for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, S23-S24

  • for type 1 diabetes risk, S19

  • in dental practices, S23

  • in HIV patients, S5

SEARCH study, S186

seasonal agricultural workers, S11

second-generation antipsychotics, S66

self-management. See DSMES

self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), S73-S74, S85-S87

  • counterfeit strips, S86

  • glucose meter accuracy, S87

  • with intensive insulin regimens, S86

  • interfering substances for, S87

  • meter standards, S86

  • optimizing monitor use, S86

  • with basal insulin and/or oral agents, S87

semaglutide, S118, S120, S139-S140, S143-S144, S155-S156, S173

sensory impairment, S4, S49

SGLT2 inhibitors, S6, S77, S78, S113, S115, S118, S120, S121, S125, S141, S142, S144-S145, S153, S154-S156, S169, S173-S175, S214, S216

short-acting insulins, S112, S119, S173, S213

simvastatin, S132, S133, S134

sitagliptin, S118, S138, S145

skilled nursing facilities, S174, S175, S217

sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, S49, S192

smoking cessation, S5, S62

  • e-cigarettes, S62

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S36

  • in those predisposed to diabetes, S37

  • in youth, S187

  • tobacco, S62

social capital, S11

social context, S10–S11

social determinants of health (SDOH), S8, S10-S11

sodium, S56, S59, S129, S154

spironolactone, S128, S156

SPRINT trial, S127-S128


of CKD, S45, S153

of type 1 diabetes, S17

statins, S46, S132-S135

  • in children, S187, S192

  • cognition, effects on, S46, S135

  • in combination treatment, S133

  • ezetimibe and, S133

  • fibrates and, S134

  • high intensity and moderate therapy, S132

  • niacin and, S134

  • PCSK9 inhibitors and, S133

  • in pregnancy, S187, S201, S206

  • primary prevention with, S131-S132

  • randomized trials, S119

  • risk-based therapy, S132

  • secondary prevention with, s132, S133

  • in type 1 diabetes, S133

stroke, S77, S127, S128, S133-S136, S138, S140-S144

subcutaneous insulin infusion, continuous (CSII), S89, S91, S92, S111, S183, S189, S205, S215

sulfonylureas, S10, S25, S26, S76, S114, S121, S172, S204

second-generation, S118

supplements, S56, S59, S202

surgical treatment, S214

for type 1 diabetes, S113, S137

metabolic, S100, S105-S106, S191

SUSTAIN trial, S139, S140, S143, S155

sweeteners, nonnutritive, S56, S59-S60

syringes, insulin, S90-S91

tai chi, S60, S61

tapentadol, S160

technology, S5, S85–S99

  • for CGM, S81, S87-S90

  • in diabetes prevention/delay, S36

  • for insulin delivery, S90–S93

  • for SMBG, S85-S87

TECOS trial, S138, S145

TEDDY study, S19

telemedicine, S9

temperature, effect on SMBG, S87

testosterone, low, S5, S49

tetanus vaccination, S48

thiazide-like diuretics, S129-S131

thiazolidinediones, S25, S37, S49, S105, S118, S144, S172

thought disorders, S66

thyroid disease, S26, S45, S184-S185, S201

ticagrelor, S137

tobacco use

  • smoking cessation, S5, S62

  • in children/adolescents, S187

  • in type 2 diabetes prevention/delay, S36

topiramate/phentermine, S37, S103

tricyclic antidepressants, S105, S160, S161


  • elevated, S20, S131, S134, S192

  • REDUCE-IT trial, S59, S134

two-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG), S16, S17, S18, S26, S28

  • in prediabetes, S20, S21

two-step strategy, GDM, S28-S29

type 1 diabetes, S6

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease in, S77

  • in children and adolescents, S181-S187

  • classification, S15–S16

  • daily insulin requirements, S112

  • diagnosis, S18-S20

  • idiopathic, S19

  • immune-mediated, S18-S19

  • in older adults, S175

  • insulin therapy, S112-S113

  • intermittent CGM in, S90

  • noninsulin treatments, S113

  • pharmacologic therapy, S111-S113

  • preexisting, in pregnancy, S205

  • real-time CGM in children/adolescents, S183, S184

  • screening for risk, S20

  • staging, S17

  • surgical treatment, S113

type 2 diabetes, S4, S5

  • A1C and cardiovascular disease in, S77-S78

  • classification, S15–S16

  • combination therapy, S114

  • diagnosis, S19-S24

  • in children and adolescents, S188-S193

  • initial therapy, S114

  • insulin therapy, S113-

  • intensifying to injectable therapies, S9, S113, S118, S21

  • lifestyle management, S171–S172

  • metabolic surgery, S105-S107

  • pharmacologic therapy, S113-S121

  • postpartum conversion of GDM to, S206-S207

  • preexisting, in pregnancy, S205

  • prevention/delay, S34–S39

  • screening/testing, S20–S22, S171

tyrosine phosphatases, S18

U-300 glargine, S113, S119, S120, S121, S173, S214

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), S76-S79 S142

uric acid, S87

vaccinations, S4, S42-S46, S201

vascular dementia, S46, S169

vegetarian diet, S35, S57

venlafaxine, S160

VERIFY trial, S114

Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), S77, S169

water intake, S56, S60

weight loss. See obesity management

well-being, S9, S53-S72

whites. See Caucasians

wound care, for diabetic foot infections, S162

xylose, S87

yoga, S60-S61

zinc transporter 8, S18

zoster vaccination, S48

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