On eight separate occasions, four functionally anephric diabetic patients (on maintenance hemodialysis) experienced episodes of severe hyperglycemia with acute interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema demonstrated clinically and by chest x-ray without electrocardiographic or enzymatic evidence of an acute myocardial lesion. Three patients had normal stress 201Tl scanning. The fourth patient, who experienced three such episodes, had normal coronary angiograms and only a mild elevation of the left-ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Clinical and chest x-ray improvement were immediate following insulin therapy and control of hyperglycemia, without phlebotomy or dialysis. Since these episodes were observed during a 1-yr period, this syndrome may be more common than suspected. It is concluded that in functionally anephric diabetic individuals: (1) pulmonary edema can be precipitated by uncontrolled diabetes; (2) endogenous fluid shifts may contribute to the cause of acute pulmonary edema; (3) clinical and radiologic improvement can be achieved with adequate insulin therapy; and (4) blood glucose levels should be monitored and controlled in diabetic patients with renal failure.

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