To estimate diabetes distress prevalence and associations with demographic and clinical variables among adults with type 1 diabetes in Norway.


In this nationwide population-based registry study, the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID-20) questionnaire was sent to 16,255 adults with type 1 diabetes. Linear regression models examined associations of demographic and clinical variables with distress.


In total, 10,186 individuals (62.7%) completed the PAID-20, with a mean score of 25.4 (SD 18.4) and 21.7% reporting high distress. Respondents endorsed worrying about the future and complications as the most problematic item (23.0%). Female sex, younger age, non-European origin, primary education only, unemployment, smoking, continuous glucose monitoring use, more symptomatic hypoglycemia, reduced foot sensitivity, treated retinopathy, and higher HbA1c were associated with higher distress.


Diabetes distress is common among adults with type 1 diabetes and associated with clinically relevant factors, underlining that regular care should include efforts to identify and address distress.

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